1. EIGE. Estimation of girls at risk of female genital mutilation in the European Union Report. Vilnius; 2015.
2. Socialstyrelsen [Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare]. Flickor och kvinnor i Sverige som kan ha varit utsatta för könsstympning. En uppskattning av antalet [Girls and women in Sweden who may have been exposed to genital mutilation. An estimate of the number]. Stockholm; 2015.
3. SFS 1982:316. Lag med förbud mot könsstympning av kvinnor [Act prohibiting Female Genital Mutilation of Women]. Stockholm; 1982.
4. Johnsdotter S. Created by God. How Somalis in Swedish Exile Reassess the Practice of Female Circumcision. Lund University; 2002.
5. Wahlberg A, Johnsdotter S, Ekholm Selling K, Källestål C, Essén B. Baseline data from a planned RCT on attitudes to female genital cutting after migration: when are interventions justified? BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e017506. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017506 28801440
6. Wahlberg A, Johnsdotter S, Ekholm Selling K, Källestål C, Essén B. Factors associated with the support of pricking (female genital cutting type IV) among Somali immigrants–a cross-sectional study in Sweden. Reproductive Health; 2017;14(92).
7. UNICEF Somalia and Somaliland Ministry of Planning and National Development. Somaliland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, Final Report. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
8. UNICEF Somalia and the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. Northeast Zone Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, Final Report. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
9. Vestbostad E, Blystad A. Reflections on Female Circumcision Discourse in Hargeysa, Somaliland: Purified or Mutilated? Afr J Reprod Heal. 2014;18(2):22–35.
10. Mackie G. Ending Fotbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account. American Sociological Review. 1996;61(6):999–1017.
11. United Nations Children’s Fund. Changing a harmful social convention: Female genital mutilaiton/cutting. Florence; 2005.
12. United Nations Children’s Fund. The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting in five African countries. Florence: UNICEF; 2010.
13. UNFPA-UNICEF. Voices of Change. 2014 Annual report of the UNFPA-UNICEF joint programme on female genital mutilation/cutting: Accelerating change. New York; 2014.
14. Shell-duncan B, Moreau A, Wander K, Smith S. The role of older women in contesting norms associated with female genital mutilation/cutting in Senegambia: A factorial focus group analysis. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(7):e0199217. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199217 30044770
15. Efferson C, Vogt S, Elhadi A, El H, Ahmed F. Female genital cutting is not a social coordination norm. Science. 2015;349(6255):1446–7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa7978 26404811
16. Bellemare MF, Novak L, Steinmetz TL. All in the family: Explaining the persistence of female genital cutting in West Africa. Journal of Development Economics. Elsevier B.V.; 2015;116:252–65.
17. Hayford SR, Ghuman SJ, Kennedy S, Smith L, Smith KP, Watkins SC. Conformity and Change: Community Effects on Female Genital Cutting in Kenya. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2005;46(June):121–40.
18. Shell-Duncan B, Wander K, Hernlund Y, Moreau A. Dynamics of change in the practice of female genital cutting in Senegambia: Testing predictions of social convention theory. Social science & medicine. 2011;73:1275–83.
19. Burke NJ, Joseph G, Pasick RJ, Barker JC. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory. Health Educ Behav. 2009;36(5 Supplement):55–70.
20. Southwood N, Eriksson L. Norms and conventions. Philosophical Explorations. 2011;14(2):37–41.
21. Vogt S, Efferson C, Fehr E. The risk of female genital cutting in Europe: Comparing immigrant attitudes toward uncut girls with attitudes in a practicing country. SSM—Population Health. 2017;3(July 2016):283–93.
22. Pashaei T, Ponnet K, Moeeni M, Khazaee-Pool M, Majlessi F. Daughters at risk of female genital mutilation: Examining the determinants of mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo female genital mutilation. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(3):1–12.
23. Thanh LN, Vijay VK. An Analysis of Sample Designs and Sampling Errors of the Demographic and Health Surveys. DHS Analytical Reports no. 3. Calverton, Maryland; 1997.
24. Shankar V, Bangdiwala SI. Observer agreement paradoxes in 2x2 tables: comparison of agreement measures. BMC medical research methodology. 2014;14(100).
25. Viera AJ, Garrett JM. Understanding interobserver agreement: The Kappa Statistic. Family Medicine. 2005;37(5):360–3. 15883903
26. Meyer D, Zeileis A, Hornik K. vcd: Visualizing Categorical Data. R package version 1.4–3. 2016.
27. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Internet]. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2015. http://www.r-project.org/
28. Landis JR, Koch GG. The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data. Biometrics. 1977;33:159–74. 843571
29. Bangdiwala SI, Shankar V. The agreement chart. BMC medical research methodology [Internet]. BMC Medical Research Methodology; 2013;13(97).
30. Gele AA, Sagbakken M, Kumar B. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area. International Journal of Women’s Health. 2015;7:933–43. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S93217 26648760
31. Johnsdotter S, Essén B. Cultural change after migration: Circumcision of girls in Western migrant communities. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2016;32:15–25.
32. Cloward K. Elites, exit options, and social barriers to norm change: the complex case of female genital mutiliation. Studies in Comparative International Development. 2015;50(3):378–407.
33. Farina P, Ortensi LE. The mother to daughter transmission of Female Genital Cutting in emigration as evidenced by Italian survey data. Genus. 2014;70(2):111–37.
34. Newell-Jones K. Empowering communities to collectively abandon FGM/C in Somaliland: Baseline Research Report. London; 2016.
35. Abdi R. Carving culture: Creating identity through female genital cutting. Durham Anthropology Journal. 2012;18(1):115–53.
36. Jirovsky E. Contemporary Meanings of Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation (FC/FGM) in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso—Local Aspects of a Global Assemblage. University of Vienna; 2014.
37. Manski CF. Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem. The Review of Economic Studies. 1993;60(3):531–42.
38. Mackie G, Moneti F, Shakya H, Denny E. What are Social Norms? How are They Measured? 2015.
39. Johnsdotter S, Mestre RM. ‘Female genital mutilation’ in Europe: Public discourse versus empirical evidence. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. Elsevier Ltd; 2017;1–10.