Modeling record scores in the snatch and its variations in the long-term training of young weightlifters

Autoři: Adam Czaplicki aff001;  Paulina Szyszka aff002;  Jarosław Sacharuk aff002;  Janusz Jaszczuk aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland aff001;  Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225891


The primary aim of the current study was to determine the time curves of changes in the record scores in the snatch and its variations during a two-year training cycle in young weightlifters. This study also aimed at assessing the ratios between these scores and at predicting the snatch record scores at the end of the subsequent annual training macrocycle. The final purpose was to compare the record scores with the isometric peak torque values of the trunk and knee extensors. The study involved 16 weightlifters who were tested seven times at three-month intervals. The overall mean ratios of the record scores in the hang snatch to those in the snatch and the record scores in the hang power snatch to those in the snatch were approximately constant and amounted to 0.95 and 0.79, respectively. The overall mean ratio between the scores in the power snatch to those in the snatch was approximately 0.88. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the individual time trajectories of record scores in the snatch and its derivatives were identified in two consecutive annual training macrocycles. The error in predicting record results at the end of the following annual training macrocycle was 6.7 ± 4.7% or 8.1 ± 3.4% depending on the way the measurement data were modeled. The results of the study also indicate that the measurements of the isometric peak torque of the trunk extensors performed in laboratory conditions can be useful in diagnosing the strength capacity of young weightlifters.

Klíčová slova:

Ankle joints – Hip – Knee joints – Knees – Mathematical functions – Sports – Strength training – Torque


1. Zatsiorsky VM. Intensity of strength training facts and theory: Russian and Eastern European approach. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal. 1992;14: 46–57.

2. Storey A, Smith HK. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting performance, training and physiology. Sports Med. 2012;42: 769–790. doi: 10.2165/11633000-000000000-00000 22873835

3. Drechsler A. The weightlifting encyclopedia: A guide to world class performance. 1st ed. Flushing: A is A Communications; 1998.

4. Hass CJ, Garzarella L, De Hoyos D, Pollock ML. Single versus multiple sets in long-term recreational weightlifters. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2000;32: 235–242.

5. Hoffman J, Cooper J, Wendell M, Kang J. Comparison of Olympic vs. traditional power lifting training programs in football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18129–135.

6. Lauder MA, Lake JP. Biomechanical comparison of unilateral and bilateral power snatch lifts. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22: 653–660. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181660c89 18438258

7. Ratamess NA, Alvar BA, Evetoch TK, Housh TJ, Kibler WB, Kraemer WJ, Triplett NT. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41: 687–707. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181915670

8. Winchester JB, Porter JM, McBride JM. Changes in bar path kinematics and kinetics through use of summary feedback in power snatch training. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23: 444–454. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318198fc73 19209074

9. Haff GG, Nimphius S. Training principles for power. Strength Cond J. 2012;34: 2–12.

10. Holmberg PM. Weightlifting to improve volleyball performance. Strength Cond J. 2013;35: 79–88.

11. Suchomel TJ, Comfort P, Stone MH. Weightlifting pulling derivatives: Rationale for implementation and application. Sports Med. 2015;45: 823–839. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0314-y 25689955

12. James LP, Haff GG, Kelly VG, Connick MJ, Hoffman BW., Beckman EM. The impact of strength level on adaptations to combined weightlifting, plyometric, and ballistic training. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018;28: 1494–1505. doi: 10.1111/sms.13045 29281133

13. Waryasz G, Suric V, Daniels AH, Gil JA, Eberson CP. CrossFit instructor demographics and practice trends. Orthop Rev. 2016;8: doi: 10.4081/or.2016.6571

14. Smith MM, Sommer AJ, Starkoff BE, Devor ST. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27: 3159–3172. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318289e59f 23439334

15. Bartonietz KE. Biomechanics of the snatch: Toward a higher training efficiency. Strength Cond J. (1996);18: 24–31.

16. Waller M, Townsend R, Gattone M. Application of the power snatch for athletic conditioning. Strength Cond J. 2007;29: 10–20.

17. Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Developing maximal neuromuscular power. Part 2 –training considerations for improving maximal power production. Sports Med. (2011);41: 125–146. doi: 10.2165/11538500-000000000-00000 21244105

18. Garhammer J. A review of power output studies of Olympic and powerlifting: methodology, performance, prediction, an evaluation tests. Strength Cond 1993;7: 76–89.

19. Ayers JL, DeBeliso M, Sevene TG, Adams KJ. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes. Biol Sport. 2016;33: 251–256.4 doi: 10.5604/20831862.1201814 27601779

20. Hedrick A, Wada H. Weightlifting movements: Do the benefits outweigh the risks? Strength Cond J. 2008;30: 26–35.

21. Poletaev P, Cervera V, Coach W. The Russian approach to planning a weightlifting program. Strength Cond 1995;17: 20–6.

22. Canavan PK, Garrett GE, Armstrong LE. Kinematic and kinetic relationships between an Olympic-style lift and the vertical jump. J Strength Cond Res. 1996;10: 127–130.

23. Stone MH, Sanborn K, O’Bryant HS, Hartman M, Stone ME, Proulx C, Ward B, Hruby J. Maximum strength-power performance relationships in collegiate throwers. J. Strength Cond Res. 2003;17: 739–745. doi: 10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0739:msrict>;2 14636111

24. Szyszka P, Jaszczuk J, Sacharuk J, Parnicki F, Czaplicki A. Relationship between muscle torque and performance in special and specific exercises in young weightlifters. Pol J Sport Tourism 22: 2016;23: 127–132.

25. Jaszczuk J, Wit A, Trzaskoma Z, Iskra L, Gajewski J. Biomechanical criteria of muscle force evaluation in the aspect of top-level athletes selection. Biol Sport. 1988;5: 51–64.

26. Cieśliński M, Jówko E, Sacewicz T, Cieśliński I, Płaszewski M. Low-level laser therapy and the recovery of muscle function after a single session of neuromuscular electrical stimulation: A crossover trial. Pol J Sport Tourism. 2018;25: 3–9.

27. Czaplicki A, Śliwa M, Szyszka P, Sadowski J. Biomechanical assessment of strength and jumping ability in male volleyball players during the annual training macrocycle. Pol. J Sport Tourism. 2017;24: 221–227.

28. Bliese PD, Ployhart RE. Growth modelling using random coefficient models: Model building, testing and illustrations. Organ Res Methods. 2002;5: 362–387.

29. Shek DTL, Ma CMS. Longitudinal data analysis using linear mixed models in SPSS: Concepts, procedures and illustrations. Sci World J. 2011;11: 42–76.

30. Bates DM, Mäechler M, Bolker B, Walker S. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw. 2015;67: 1–48.

31. Ntoumanis A, Stenling A, Thøgersen-Ntoumani C, Vlachopoulos S, Lindwall M, Gucciardi DF, Tsakonitis C. Longitudinal associations between exercise identity and exercise motivation: A multilevel growth curve model approach. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;28: 746–753. doi: 10.1111/sms.12951 28742272

32. Kuznetsova A, Brockhoff PB, Christensen RHB. lmerTest package: Tests in linear mixed effects models. J Stat Softw. 2017;82: doi: 10.18637/jss.v082.i02

33. Raudenbush SW, Bryk AS. Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. 2nd ed. Thousand Oakes: Sage; 2002.

34. Singer JD, Willet JB. Applied longitudinal data analysis. 1st ed. New York: Oxford Press; 2003.

35. Lee S, DeRosia KD, Lamie LM. Evaluating the contribution of lower extremity kinetics to whole body power output during the power snatch. Sport Biomech. 2018;17: 554–566.

36. Lee S, DeRosia KD, Lamie LM. Determining the best combination of ground reaction force parameters for maximising power during the power snatch. Int J Perf Anal Spor. 2019;19: 313–322.

37. Urso A. Weightlifting. Sport for all sports. 1st ed. Torgiano: Tipografia Mancini; 2013.

38. DeWeese BH, Serrano AJ, Scruggs SK, Burton JD. The midthigh pull: Proper application and progressions of a weightlifting movement derivative. Strength Cond J. 2013;35: 54–58.

Článok vyšiel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12