Fatty acid profiling of 75 Indian snack samples highlights overall low trans fatty acid content with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content in some samples

Autoři: Kshamata Joshee aff001;  Tanvi Abhang aff001;  Ram Kulkarni aff001
Působiště autorů: Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Lavale, Pune, India aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225798


Diet-derived fatty acids have well-proven varying effects on human health. In particular, trans fatty acids (TFA) are associated with high risk of cardiovascular diseases whereas, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered to be beneficial to the human health. In this study, we report fatty acid profiling of 75 food samples from India belonging to three broad categories, viz., perishable deep-fried, non-perishable deep-fried and bakery. Lipids were extracted from the snacks and fatty acids converted into methyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography. Thirty-seven detected fatty acids were classified into four categories: saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), PUFA, and TFA, of which SFA represented the most abundant class in two-third of the samples. The highest average proportions of TFA and SFA of 3.26% and 56.1%, respectively, in total fatty acids were found in the bakery products; whereas, that of PUFA (38%) in the perishable deep-fried products. Principal Component Analysis depicted clustering of many samples according to the above-mentioned categories and helped predict the oil usage. Lower TFA content in all the samples and high proportion of PUFA in a quarter of the samples is suggestive of a better trend as compared to earlier studies.

Klíčová slova:

Principal component analysis – Fatty acids – Food – Fats – Cardiovascular diseases – Oils – Vegetable oils – Isomers


1. Michas G, Micha R, Zampelas A. Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: putting together the pieces of a complicated puzzle. Atherosclerosis. 2014;234: 320–328. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.03.013 24727233

2. List GR, King JW. Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils: Theory and Practice. Elsevier; 2016.

3. León-Camacho M, Ruiz-Méndez MV, Graciani-Constante M, Graciani-Constante E. Kinetics of the cis-trans isomerization of linoleic acid in the deodorization and/or physical refining of edible fats. Eur J lipid Sci Technol. 2001;103: 85–92.

4. Bhardwaj S, Passi SJ, Misra A, Pant KK, Anwar K, Pandey RM, et al. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation. Food Chem. 2016;212: 663–670. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.021 27374582

5. Gupta V, Downs SM, Ghosh-Jerath S, Lock K, Singh A. Unhealthy fat in street and snack foods in low-socioeconomic settings in India: a case study of the food environments of rural villages and an urban slum. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2016;48: 269–279. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2015.11.006 26872553

6. L’Abbé MR, Stender S, Skeaff CM, Tavella M, others. Approaches to removing trans fats from the food supply in industrialized and developing countries. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63: S50–S67. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2008.65

7. Karn S, Abraham RA, Ramakrishnan L. Assessment of trans fatty acid content in widely consumed snacks by gas chromatography in a developing country. Food Nutr Sci. 2013;4: 1281.

8. Reshma M V, Ravi Kiran C, Nisha P, SobanKumar DR, Sundaresan A, Jayamurthy P. Trans fat content in labeled and unlabelled Indian bakery products including fried snacks. Int Food Res J. 2012;19: 1609–1614.

9. AOAC. AOAC Official Method 996.06 Fat (Total, Saturated, and Unsaturated) in Foods. AOAC International; 2002.

10. Santos LAT, Cruz R, Casal S. Trans fatty acids in commercial cookies and biscuits: An update of Portuguese market. Food Control. 2015;47: 141–146.

11. Xiao Z, Lai K, Du R, Shen Y, Sun X, Pan Y, et al. Fat and moisture content in Chinese fried bread sticks: assessment and rapid near-infrared spectroscopic method development. J Spectrosc. 2013;2013.

12. Bajaj I, Singhal R. Gellan gum for reducing oil uptake in sev, a legume based product during deep-fat frying. Food Chem. 2007;104: 1472–1477.

13. Kuhnt K, Baehr M, Rohrer C, Jahreis G. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods. Eur J lipid Sci Technol. 2011;113: 1281–1292. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201100037 22164125

14. Richter EK, Shawish KA, Scheeder MRL, Colombani PC. Trans fatty acid content of selected Swiss foods: the TransSwissPilot study. J Food Compos Anal. 2009;22: 479–484.

15. Dhaka V, Gulia N, Ahlawat KS, Khatkar BS. Trans fats—sources, health risks and alternative approach-A review. J Food Sci Technol. 2011;48: 534–541. doi: 10.1007/s13197-010-0225-8 23572785

16. Bansal G, Zhou W, Tan T-W, Neo F-L, Lo H-L. Analysis of trans fatty acids in deep frying oils by three different approaches. Food Chem. 2009;116: 535–541.

17. Hou J-C, Jiang L-Z, Zhang C-W. Effects of frying on the trans-fatty acid formation in soybean oils. Eur J lipid Sci Technol. 2012;114: 287–293.

18. Dias F da SL, Passos MEA, do Carmo M das GT, Lopes MLM, Mesquita VLV. Fatty acid profile of biscuits and salty snacks consumed by Brazilian college students. Food Chem. 2015;171: 351–355. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.133 25308679

19. Fu H, Yang L, Yuan H, Rao P, Lo YM. Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China. J Food Sci. 2008;73: S383–S391. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00907.x 19019125

20. Vardavas CI, Yiannopoulos S, Kiriakakis M, Poulli E, Kafatos A. Fatty acid and salt contents of snacks in the Cretan and Cypriot market: A child and adolescent dietary hazard. Food Chem. 2007;101: 924–931.

21. Dorni C, Sharma P, Saikia G, Longvah T. Fatty acid profile of edible oils and fats consumed in India. Food Chem. 2018;238: 9–15. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.05.072 28867107

22. Baylin A, Siles X, Donovan-Palmer A, Fernandez X, Campos H. Fatty acid composition of Costa Rican foods including trans fatty acid content. J Food Compos Anal. 2007;20: 182–192.

23. Tavella M, Peterson G, Espeche M, Cavallero E, Cipolla L, Perego L, et al. Trans fatty acid content of a selection of foods in Argentina. Food Chem. 2000;69: 209–213.

24. Jha GK, Pal S, Mathur VC, Bisaria G, Anbukkani P, Burman RR, et al. Edible oilseeds supply and demand scenario in India: Implications for policy. Rep Indian Agric Res Inst. 2012;

25. Anonymous. Commodity Profile of Edible Oil for July—2018, Department of Agriculture Cooperation & Farmers Welfare, Government of India. 2018.

26. FSSAI. Press release: FSSAI’s new “Heart Attack Rewind” campaign calls for elimination of industrially produced trans fat from the food supply [Internet]. 2018 [cited 7 Feb 2019]. Available: https://fssai.gov.in/dam/jcr:fc6d00e1…/Press_Release_Heart_Attack_30_11_2018.pdf%0A

27. Agrawal A, Gupta R, Varma K, Mathur B. High trans fatty acid content in common Indian fast foods. Nutr Food Sci. 2008;38: 564–569.

28. Fernández PM, Juan S. Fatty acid composition of commercial Spanish fast food and snack food. J Food Compos Anal. 2000;13: 275–281.

29. Vicario IM, Griguol V, León-Camacho M. Multivariate characterization of the fatty acid profile of Spanish cookies and bakery products. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51: 134–139. doi: 10.1021/jf0258297 12502397

30. Costa N, Cruz R, Graça P, Breda J, Casal S. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market. Food Control. 2016;64: 128–134. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.12.010 27274619

31. Micha R, Mozaffarian D. Trans fatty acids: effects on metabolic syndrome, heart disease and diabetes. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2009;5: 335. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2009.79 19399016

32. Yu DX, Sun Q, Ye XW, Pan A, Zong G, Zhou YH, et al. Erythrocyte trans-fatty acids, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older Chinese individuals. Diabetologia. 2012;55: 2954–2962. doi: 10.1007/s00125-012-2674-2 22886370

33. Marventano S, Kolacz P, Castellano S, Galvano F, Buscemi S, Mistretta A, et al. A review of recent evidence in human studies of n-3 and n-6 PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depressive disorders: does the ratio really matter? Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015;66: 611–622. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2015.1077790 26307560

34. FAO/WHO. Interim Summary of Conclusions and Dietary Recommendations on Total Fat & Fatty Acids. From the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, 10–14 November, 2008, WHO, Geneva.; 2008.

35. Osés J, Niza S, Ziani K, Maté JI. Potato starch edible films to control oxidative rancidity of polyunsaturated lipids: effects of film composition, thickness and water activity. Int J food Sci Technol. 2009;44: 1360–1366.

36. Downs SM, Gupta V, Ghosh-Jerath S, Lock K, Thow AM, Singh A. Reformulating partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to maximise health gains in India: is it feasible and will it meet consumer demand? BMC Public Health. 2013;13: 1139. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1139 24308642

Článok vyšiel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12