Torque teno virus viral load is related to age, CMV infection and HLA type but not to Alzheimer's disease

Autoři: Gabriel Westman aff001;  Catherine Schoofs aff002;  Martin Ingelsson aff003;  Josef D. Järhult aff001;  Shaman Muradrasoli aff002
Působiště autorů: Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden aff001;  Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden aff002;  Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article


Torque teno virus (TTV) is an unenveloped, circular, single stranded DNA virus with a genome size of approximately 3.8 kb. Previous studies have demonstrated varying grades of association between TTV DNA levels and immune deficiencies related to age, chronic infections and cancer. Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been related to persistent viral infections such as HSV-1 and CMV, but it is not known whether TTV viral load could serve as a functional biomarker of cellular immunity in this setting. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether TTV infection and viral load is related to AD status, CMV immunity, systemic inflammation or HLA types connected to anti-viral immunity. A total of 50 AD subjects and 51 non-demented controls were included in the study. AD subjects were diagnosed according to NINCDS-ADRDA and DSM-IV criteria and neuroradiologic findings were consistent with the diagnosis. TTV viral load was analyzed in plasma samples using a quantitative real-time PCR. Using a cut-off for TTV status at 200 copies/ml, 88% (89/101) of the study subjects were classified as TTV positive. TTV viral load significantly increased with age (beta 0.049 per year, p<0.001) but significantly decreased in relation to CMV IgG levels (beta -0.022 per 1000 units, p = 0.005) and HLA-B27 positivity (beta -0.53, p = 0.023). In conclusion, TTV immune control is not significantly affected by AD status, but appears related to age, CMV humoral immune response and HLA type.

Klíčová slova:

Viral load – Polymerase chain reaction – Alzheimer's disease – Biomarkers – Viral persistence and latency – Cell-mediated immunity – Antiviral immune response – Anelloviruses


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