Merit overrules theory of mind when young children share resources with others


Autoři: James Stack aff001;  Carlos Romero-Rivas aff002
Působiště autorů: Department of Psychology, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, United Kingdom aff001;  Department of Evolutive and Educational Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227375

Souhrn

Non-windfall approaches to sharing demonstrate pre-schoolers’ sensitivity to merit-based distributions of resources. However, such studies have not considered (1) whether epistemic aspects of task performance, such as the relative accuracy of a co-worker, influences pre-schoolers’ rates of sharing; and (2) how children’s emerging social understanding may impact resource allocations in high- and low-merit situations. These issues are of theoretical importance as they may provide new information about the scope of pre-schooler’s merit-based sharing behaviours. Moreover, as social understanding has been related to both increases and decreases in pre-schoolers’ levels of sharing, providing a merit-based assessment of this relationship would allow for a concurrent assessment of recent conflicting findings. In this study, three- and four-year-olds (N = 131) participated in an unexpected transfer task which was followed by a resource generation picture card naming task with a reliable or unreliable (high- or low-merit) co-worker (a hand puppet). The results showed that children engage in more generous rates of sharing with a high-merit co-worker. This suggests that merit-based sharing is apparent in young children and extends to epistemic aspects of task performance. However, such sharing was constrained by a self-serving bias. Finally, we were not able to detect an effect of children’s performance on the false belief task on sharing behaviours in the high- or low-merit trials, suggesting that these behaviours may not be modulated by social understanding during early childhood.

Klíčová slova:

Analysis of variance – Behavior – Children – Motivation – Prosocial behavior – Theory of mind – Dictator game – Ultimatum game


Zdroje

1. Dunfield KA. A construct divided: Prosocial behavior as helping, sharing, and comforting subtypes. Front Psychol. 2014; 5: 958. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00958 25228893

2. Blake PR, Rand DG. Currency value moderates equity preference among young children. Evol Hum Behav. 2010; 31(3): 210–218. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.06.012

3. Fehr E, Bernhard H, Rockenbach B. Egalitarianism in young children. Nature. 2008; 454: 1079–1083. doi: 10.1038/nature07155 18756249

4. Moore C. Fairness in children’s resource allocation depends on the recipient. Psychol Sci. 2009; 20: 944–948. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02378.x 19515118

5. Kanngiesser P, Warneken F. Young children consider merit when sharing resources with others. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(8): e43979. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043979 22952834

6. Melis A, Altricher K, Schneider A, Tomasello M. Allocation of resources to collaborators and free-riders in 3-year-olds. J Exp Child Psychol. 2013; 114: 364–370. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.08.006 23073366

7. Hamann K, Bender J, Tomasello M. Meritocratic sharing is based on collaboration in 3-year-olds. Dev Psychol. 2014; 50: 121–128. doi: 10.1037/a0032965 23688170

8. Hamann K, Warneken F, Greenberg JR, Tomasello M. Collaboration encourages equal sharing in children but not in chimpanzees. Nature. 2011; 476: 328–331. doi: 10.1038/nature10278 21775985

9. Warneken F, Lohse K, Melis AP, Tomasello M. Young children share the spoils after collaboration. Psychological Science. 2011; 22: 267–273. doi: 10.1177/0956797610395392 21196533

10. Cowell JM, Samek A, List J, Decety J. The curious relation between theory of mind and sharing in preschool age children. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(2): e0117947. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117947 25658696

11. Wu Z, Su Y. How do preschoolers’ sharing behaviors relate to their theory of mind understanding? J Exp Child Psychol. 2014; 120: 73–86. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.11.007 24384326

12. Rizzo MT, Killen M. Theory of mind is related to children’s resource allocations in gender stereotypic contexts. Dev Psychol. 2018; 54: 510–520. doi: 10.1037/dev0000439 29083217

13. Baumard N, Mascaro O, Chevallier C. Preschoolers are able to take merit into account when distributing goods. Dev Psychol. 2012; 48: 492–498. doi: 10.1037/a0026598 22148948

14. Smith CE, Blake PR, Harris PL. I should but I won’t: Why young children endorse norms of fair sharing but do not follow them. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(3): e59510. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059510 23527210

15. Koenig M, Harris PL. Preschoolers mistrust ignorant and inaccurate speakers. Child Dev. 2005; 76: 1261–1277. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00849.x 16274439

16. Pasquini E, Corriveau KH, Koenig M, Harris PL. Preschoolers monitor the relative accuracy of informants. Dev Psychol. 2007; 43: 1216–1226. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.5.1216 17723046

17. Sloane S, Baillargeon R, Premack D. Do infants have a sense of fairness? Psychol Sci. 2012; 23: 196–204. doi: 10.1177/0956797611422072 22258431

18. Adams JS. Inequity in social exchange. In: Berkowitz L, editor. Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2). Academic Press: NY. 1965. pp. 267–299). doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60108-2

19. Tomasello M, Vaish A. Origins of human cooperation and morality. Annual Reviews of Psychology. 2013; 64: 231–255.

20. Chernyak N, Blake PR. The relationship between cognitive control, numerical accuracy, and principles of fairness. Proc Annu Conf Cogn Sci Soc. 2017; 1764–1769.

21. Schäfer M, Haun DB, Tomasello M. Fair is not fair everywhere. Psychol Sci. 2015; 26: 1252–1260. doi: 10.1177/0956797615586188 26115962

22. Zmyj N, Buttelmann D, Carpenter M, Daum MM. The reliability of a model influences 14-month-olds’ imitation. J. Exp. Child. Psychol. 2010; 106, 208–220. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.03.002 20427052

23. Burdett ERR, Lucas AJ, Buchsbaum D, McGuigan N, Wood LA, Whiten A. Do children copy an expert or a majority? Examining selective learning in instrumental and normative contexts. PLoS ONE. 2016; 11(10): e0164698. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164698 27768716

24. Olah K, Kiraly I. Young children selectively imitate models conforming to social norms. Front. Psychol. 2019; 10:1399. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01399 31293474

25. Koenig M, Clément F, Harris PL. Trust in Testimony: Children’s use of true and false statements. Psychol Sci. 2004; 10: 694–8.

26. Takagishi H, Kameshima S, Schug J, Koizumi M, Yamagishi T. Theory of mind enhances preference for fairness. J Exp Child Psychol. 2010; 105: 130–137. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2009.09.005 19857876

27. Sally D, Hill E. The development of interpersonal strategy: Autism, theory-of-mind, cooperation and fairness. J Econ Psychol. 2006; 27: 73–97. doi: 10.1016/j.joep.2005.06.015

28. Liu B, Huang Z, Xu G, Jin Y, Chen Y, Xiuhong L, et al. Altruistic sharing behavior in children: Role of theory of mind and inhibitory control. J Exp Child Psychol. 2016; 141: 222–228. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2015.09.010 26452508

29. Yu J, Zhu L, Leslie AM. Children’s Sharing Behavior in Mini-Dictator Games: The Role of In Group Favoritism and Theory of Mind. Child Dev. 2016; 87(6): 1747–1757. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12635 28262934

30. Mulvey KL, Buchheister K, McGrath K. Evaluations of intergroup resource allocations: The role of theory of mind. J Exp Child Psychol. 2016; 142: 203–211. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2015.10.002 26525855

31. Vonk J, Jett SE, Tomeny TS, Mercer S, Cwikla J. Young children’s theory of mind predicts more sharing with friends over time. Child Dev. 2018; Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13112

32. Wellman HM, Cross D, Watson J. Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Dev. 2001; 72: 655–684. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00304 11405571

33. Wimmer H, Perner J. Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and the containing function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition. 1983; 13: 103–128. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(83)90004-5 6681741

34. Moll H, Tomasello M. How 14- and 18-month-olds know what others have experienced. Dev Psychol. 2007; 43(2): 309–317. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.309 17352541

35. O’Neill DK. Two-year-old children’s sensitivity to a parent’s knowledge state when making requests. Child Dev. 1996; 67: 659–677. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01758.x

36. Fedra E, Schmidt MFH. Older (but not younger) pre-schoolers reject incorrect knowledge claims. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 2019; 37, 130–145. doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12264 30094857

37. Lakens D, Scheel AM, Isager PM. Equivalence testing for psychological research: A tutorial. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science. 2018; 1(2): 259–269 doi: 10.1177/2515245918770963

38. Fusaro M, Corriveau KH, Harris PL. The good, the strong, and the accurate: Preschoolers’ evaluations of informant attributes. J Exp Child Psychol. 2011; 110: 561–574. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.06.008 21802693

39. Hermes J, Behne T, Rakoczy H. The development of selective trust: Prospects for a dual‐process account. Child Dev Perspect. 2018; 12(2): 134–138. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12274

40. Engelmann JM, Herrmann E, Tomasello M. Five-year olds, but not chimpanzees, attempt to manage their reputations. PloS ONE. 2012; 7, e48433. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048433 23119015

41. Leimgruber KL, Shaw A, Santos LR, Olson KR. Young children are more generous when others are aware of their actions. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7 (10), e48292. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048292 23133582

42. Kelsey C, Grossmann T, Vaish A Early reputation management: Three-year-old children are more generous following exposure to eyes. Frontiers in Pscyhology. 2018; 9, article 698.

43. Li V, Spitzer B, Olson KR. Preschoolers reduce inequality while favoring individuals with more. Child Development. 2014; 85, 1123–1133. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12198 24359582

44. Paulus M. The early origins of human charity: Developmental changes in preschoolers’ sharing with poor and wealthy individuals. Frontiers in Psychology. 2014; 5, 344. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00344 25018735

45. Paulus M, Leitherer M. Preschoolers’ social experiences and empathybased responding relate to their fair resource allocation. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 2017; 161, 202–210. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2017.03.005 28501312

46. Wörle M, Paulus M. Normative expectations about fairness: The development of a charity norm in preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2018; 165, 66–84. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2017.03.016 28477951

47. Miller SA. Children’s understanding of second-order mental states. Psychol. Bull. 2009; 135 749–773. doi: 10.1037/a0016854 19702381

48. Yang F, Choi Y, Misch A, Yang X, Dunham Y. In defense of the commons: Young children negatively evaluate and sanction free riders. Psycholo Sci. 2018; 29(10): 1598–1611. doi: 10.1177/0956797618779061

49. Olson KR, Spelke ES. Foundations of cooperation in young children. Cognition. 2008; 108: 222–231. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.12.003 18226808

50. House B, Henrich J, Sarnecka B, Silk JB. The development of contingent reciprocity in children. Evolution and human behaviour. 2013; 34: 86–93.

51. Imuta K, Henry JD, Slaughter V, Selcuk B, Ruffman T. Theory of mind and prosocial behavior in childhood: A meta-analytic review. Dev Psychol. 2016; 52(8): 1192–1205. doi: 10.1037/dev0000140 27337508

52. Burford HC, Foley LA, Rollins PG, Rosario KS. Gender differences in preschoolers’ sharing behavior. J Soc Behav Pers. 1996; 11: 17–25.

53. Houser D, Schunk D. Social environments with competitive pressure: Gender effects in the decisions of German school children. J Econ Psychol. 2009; 30: 634–64.

54. Malti T, Gummerum M, Keller M, Chaparro MP, Buchmann M. Early sympathy and social acceptance predict the development of sharing in children. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(12): e52017. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052017 23272197

55. Happé FGE. An advanced test of theory of mind: Understanding of story characters' thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped and normal children and adults. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994; 24: 129–154. doi: 10.1007/bf02172093 8040158

56. Wellman HM, Liu D. Scaling of theory-of mind tasks. Child Dev. 2004; 75: 523–541. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00691.x 15056204


Článok vyšiel v časopise

PLOS One


2020 Číslo 1

Najčítanejšie v tomto čísle

Tejto téme sa ďalej venujú…


Kurzy

Zvýšte si kvalifikáciu online z pohodlia domova

Význam nutraceutik u kardiovaskulárních onemocnění
nový kurz
Autori:

Faktory ovlivňující léčbu levotyroxinem

Kurz originály vs. generika

Autori: MUDr. Petr Výborný, CSc., FEBO

Autori: MUDr. Jiří Horažďovský, Ph.D

Všetky kurzy
Prihlásenie
Zabudnuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa

Zabudnuté heslo

Zadajte e-mailovú adresu, s ktorou ste vytvárali účet. Budú Vám na ňu zasielané informácie k nastaveniu nového hesla.

Prihlásenie

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa