1. ButcherBA, GreeneRI, HenrySC, AnnecharicoKL, WeinbergJB, et al. (2005) p47 GTPases regulate Toxoplasma gondii survival in activated macrophages. Infect Immun 73: 3278–3286.
2. CollazoCM, YapGS, SempowskiGD, LusbyKC, TessarolloL, et al. (2001) Inactivation of LRG-47 and IRG-47 reveals a family of interferon gamma-inducible genes with essential, pathogen-specific roles in resistance to infection. J Exp Med 194: 181–188.
3. LingYM, ShawMH, AyalaC, CoppensI, TaylorGA, et al. (2006) Vacuolar and plasma membrane stripping and autophagic elimination of Toxoplasma gondii in primed effector macrophages. J Exp Med 203: 2063–2071.
4. MartensS, ParvanovaI, ZerrahnJ, GriffithsG, SchellG, et al. (2005) Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuoles by the mouse p47-resistance GTPases. PLoS Pathog 1: e24.
5. TaylorGA, CollazoCM, YapGS, NguyenK, GregorioTA, et al. (2000) Pathogen-specific loss of host resistance in mice lacking the IFN-gamma-inducible gene IGTP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 751–755.
6. ReidAJ, VermontSJ, CottonJA, HarrisD, Hill-CawthorneGA, et al. (2012) Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy. PLoS Pathog 8: e1002567.
7. SpekkerK, LeineweberM, DegrandiD, InceV, BrunderS, et al. (2013) Antimicrobial effects of murine mesenchymal stromal cells directed against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: role of immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs). Med Microbiol Immunol 202: 197–206.
8. Al-ZeerMA, Al-YounesHM, BraunPR, ZerrahnJ, MeyerTF (2009) IFN-gamma-inducible Irga6 mediates host resistance against Chlamydia trachomatis via autophagy. PLoS One 4: e4588.
9. Bernstein-HanleyI, CoersJ, BalsaraZR, TaylorGA, StarnbachMN, et al. (2006) The p47 GTPases Igtp and Irgb10 map to the Chlamydia trachomatis susceptibility locus Ctrq-3 and mediate cellular resistance in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103: 14092–14097.
10. CoersJ, Bernstein-HanleyI, GrotskyD, ParvanovaI, HowardJC, et al. (2008) Chlamydia muridarum evades growth restriction by the IFN-gamma-inducible host resistance factor Irgb10. J Immunol 180: 6237–6245.
11. MiyairiI, TatireddigariVR, MahdiOS, RoseLA, BellandRJ, et al. (2007) The p47 GTPases Iigp2 and Irgb10 regulate innate immunity and inflammation to murine Chlamydia psittaci infection. J Immunol 179: 1814–1824.
12. NelsonDE, VirokDP, WoodH, RoshickC, JohnsonRM, et al. (2005) Chlamydial IFN-gamma immune evasion is linked to host infection tropism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102: 10658–10663.
13. HowardJC, HunnJP, SteinfeldtT (2011) The IRG protein-based resistance mechanism in mice and its relation to virulence in Toxoplasma gondii. Curr Opin Microbiol 14: 414–421.
14. LilueJ, MullerUB, SteinfeldtT, HowardJC (2013) Reciprocal virulence and resistance polymorphism in the relationship between Toxoplasma gondii and the house mouse. Elife 2: e01298.
15. ZhaoY, FergusonDJ, WilsonDC, HowardJC, SibleyLD, et al. (2009) Virulent Toxoplasma gondii evade immunity-related GTPase-mediated parasite vacuole disruption within primed macrophages. J Immunol 182: 3775–3781.
16. HunnJP, Koenen-WaismanS, PapicN, SchroederN, PawlowskiN, et al. (2008) Regulatory interactions between IRG resistance GTPases in the cellular response to Toxoplasma gondii. Embo J 27: 2495–2509.
17. PapicN, HunnJP, PawlowskiN, ZerrahnJ, HowardJC (2008) Inactive and active states of the interferon-inducible resistance GTPase, Irga6, in vivo. J Biol Chem 283: 32143–32151.
18. KhaminetsA, HunnJP, Konen-WaismanS, ZhaoYO, PreukschatD, et al. (2010) Coordinated loading of IRG resistance GTPases on to the Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuole. Cell Microbiol 12: 939–961.
19. ZhaoZ, FuxB, GoodwinM, DunayIR, StrongD, et al. (2008) Autophagosome-independent essential function for the autophagy protein Atg5 in cellular immunity to intracellular pathogens. Cell Host Microbe 4: 458–469.
20. ZhaoYO, KhaminetsA, HunnJP, HowardJC (2009) Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuole by IFNgamma-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRG proteins) triggers necrotic cell death. PLoS Pathog 5: e1000288.
21. BekpenC, HunnJP, RohdeC, ParvanovaI, GuethleinL, et al. (2005) The interferon-inducible p47 (IRG) GTPases in vertebrates: loss of the cell autonomous resistance mechanism in the human lineage. Genome Biol 6: R92.
22. BoehmU, GuethleinL, KlampT, OzbekK, SchaubA, et al. (1998) Two families of GTPases dominate the complex cellular response to IFN-gamma. J Immunol 161: 6715–6723.
23. HaldarAK, SakaHA, PiroAS, DunnJD, HenrySC, et al. (2013) IRG and GBP host resistance factors target aberrant, “non-self” vacuoles characterized by the missing of “self” IRGM proteins. PLoS Pathog 9: e1003414.
24. Capella-GutierrezS, Marcet-HoubenM, GabaldonT (2012) Phylogenomics supports microsporidia as the earliest diverging clade of sequenced fungi. BMC Biol 10: 47.
25. JamesTY, PelinA, BonenL, AhrendtS, SainD, et al. (2013) Shared signatures of parasitism and phylogenomics unite Cryptomycota and microsporidia. Curr Biol 23: 1548–1553.
26. KatinkaMD, DupratS, CornillotE, MetenierG, ThomaratF, et al. (2001) Genome sequence and gene compaction of the eukaryote parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Nature 414: 450–453.
27. DidierES (2005) Microsporidiosis: an emerging and opportunistic infection in humans and animals. Acta Trop 94: 61–76.
28. BohneW, BottcherK, GrossU (2011) The parasitophorous vacuole of Encephalitozoon cuniculi: biogenesis and characteristics of the host cell-pathogen interface. Int J Med Microbiol 301: 395–399.
29. BigliardiE, SacchiL (2001) Cell biology and invasion of the microsporidia. Microbes Infect 3: 373–379.
30. DidierES (1995) Reactive nitrogen intermediates implicated in the inhibition of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (phylum microspora) replication in murine peritoneal macrophages. Parasite Immunol 17: 405–412.
31. JelinekJ, SalatJ, SakB, KopeckyJ (2007) Effects of interferon gamma and specific polyclonal antibody on the infection of murine peritoneal macrophages and murine macrophage cell line PMJ2-R with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 54: 172–176.
32. KhanIA, MorettoM (1999) Role of gamma interferon in cellular immune response against murine Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Infect Immun 67: 1887–1893.
33. ChoudhryN, KorbelDS, ZaaloukTK, BlanshardC, Bajaj-ElliottM, et al. (2009) Interferon-gamma-mediated activation of enterocytes in immunological control of Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection. Parasite Immunol 31: 2–9.
34. FischerJ, TranD, JuneauR, Hale-DonzeH (2008) Kinetics of Encephalitozoon spp. infection of human macrophages. J Parasitol 94: 169–175.
35. El FakhryY, AchbarouA, DesportesI, MazierD (2001) Resistance to Encephalitozoon intestinalis is associated with interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 cytokines in infected mice. Parasite Immunol 23: 297–303.
36. El FakhryY, AchbarouA, FranetichJF, Desportes-LivageI, MazierD (2001) Dissemination of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, a causative agent of human microsporidiosis, in IFN-gamma receptor knockout mice. Parasite Immunol 23: 19–25.
37. SalatJ, SakB, LeT, KopeckyJ (2004) Susceptibility of IFN-gamma or IL-12 knock-out and SCID mice to infection with two microsporidian species, Encephalitozoon cuniculi and E. intestinalis. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 51: 275–282.
38. HalonenSK, TaylorGA, WeissLM (2001) Gamma interferon-induced inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii in astrocytes is mediated by IGTP. Infect Immun 69: 5573–5576.
39. FasshauerV, GrossU, BohneW (2005) The parasitophorous vacuole membrane of Encephalitozoon cuniculi lacks host cell membrane proteins immediately after invasion. Eukaryot Cell 4: 221–224.
40. HenrySC, DaniellXG, BurroughsAR, IndaramM, HowellDN, et al. (2009) Balance of Irgm protein activities determines IFN-gamma-induced host defense. J Leukoc Biol 85: 877–885.
41. HunnJP, HowardJC (2010) The mouse resistance protein Irgm1 (LRG-47): a regulator or an effector of pathogen defense? PLoS Pathog 6: e1001008.
42. LiesenfeldO, ParvanovaI, ZerrahnJ, HanSJ, HeinrichF, et al. (2011) The IFN-gamma-inducible GTPase, Irga6, protects mice against Toxoplasma gondii but not against Plasmodium berghei and some other intracellular pathogens. PLoS One 6: e20568.
43. MelzerT, DuffyA, WeissLM, HalonenSK (2008) The gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducible GTP-binding protein IGTP is necessary for toxoplasma vacuolar disruption and induces parasite egression in IFN-gamma-stimulated astrocytes. Infect Immun 76: 4883–4894.
44. Konen-WaismanS, HowardJC (2007) Cell-autonomous immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in mouse and man. Microbes Infect 9: 1652–1661.
45. MacMickingJD (2012) Interferon-inducible effector mechanisms in cell-autonomous immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 12: 367–382.
46. DaubenerW, SporsB, HuckeC, AdamR, StinsM, et al. (2001) Restriction of Toxoplasma gondii growth in human brain microvascular endothelial cells by activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Infect Immun 69: 6527–6531.
47. PfefferkornER (1984) Interferon gamma blocks the growth of Toxoplasma gondii in human fibroblasts by inducing the host cells to degrade tryptophan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81: 908–912.
48. DidierES, BowersLC, MartinAD, KurodaMJ, KhanIA, et al. (2010) Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, and iron sequestration contribute to macrophage-mediated control of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infection in vitro and in vivo. Microbes Infect 12: 1244–1251.
49. CarruthersV, BoothroydJC (2007) Pulling together: an integrated model of Toxoplasma cell invasion. Curr Opin Microbiol 10: 83–89.
50. SibleyLD (2004) Intracellular parasite invasion strategies. Science 304: 248–253.
51. ZhaoY, MarpleAH, FergusonDJ, BzikDJ, YapGS (2014) Avirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii infect macrophages by active invasion from the phagosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111: 6437–6442.
52. HybiskeK, StephensRS (2007) Mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis entry into nonphagocytic cells. Infect Immun 75: 3925–3934.
53. Martens S (2004) Cell-Biology of Interferon Inducible GTPases: University of Cologne.
54. ChoiJ, ParkS, BieringSB, SelleckE, LiuCY, et al. (2014) The parasitophorous vacuole membrane of Toxoplasma gondii is targeted for disruption by ubiquitin-like conjugation systems of autophagy. Immunity 40: 924–935.
55. SelleckEM, FentressSJ, BeattyWL, DegrandiD, PfefferK, et al. (2013) Guanylate-binding protein 1 (Gbp1) contributes to cell-autonomous immunity against Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathog 9: e1003320.
56. AlexanderDL, MitalJ, WardGE, BradleyP, BoothroydJC (2005) Identification of the moving junction complex of Toxoplasma gondii: a collaboration between distinct secretory organelles. PLoS Pathog 1: e17.
57. CharronAJ, SibleyLD (2004) Molecular partitioning during host cell penetration by Toxoplasma gondii. Traffic 5: 855–867.
58. MordueDG, DesaiN, DustinM, SibleyLD (1999) Invasion by Toxoplasma gondii establishes a moving junction that selectively excludes host cell plasma membrane proteins on the basis of their membrane anchoring. J Exp Med 190: 1783–1792.
59. TylerJS, TreeckM, BoothroydJC (2011) Focus on the ringleader: the role of AMA1 in apicomplexan invasion and replication. Trends Parasitol 27: 410–420.
60. Delorme-WalkerV, AbrivardM, LagalV, AndersonK, PerazziA, et al. (2012) Toxofilin upregulates the host cortical actin cytoskeleton dynamics, facilitating Toxoplasma invasion. J Cell Sci 125: 4333–4342.
61. GonzalezV, CombeA, DavidV, MalmquistNA, DelormeV, et al. (2009) Host cell entry by apicomplexa parasites requires actin polymerization in the host cell. Cell Host Microbe 5: 259–272.
62. RonnebaumerK, GrossU, BohneW (2008) The nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane of Encephalitozoon cuniculi is formed by host cell lipids and contains pores which allow nutrient uptake. Eukaryot Cell 7: 1001–1008.
63. OrlikJ, BottcherK, GrossU, BohneW (2010) Germination of phagocytosed E. cuniculi spores does not significantly contribute to parasitophorous vacuole formation in J774 cells. Parasitol Res 106: 753–755.
64. SouthernPJ, BergP (1982) Transformation of mammalian cells to antibiotic resistance with a bacterial gene under control of the SV40 early region promoter. J Mol Appl Genet 1: 327–341.
65. ValencakovaA, BalentP, RavaszovaP, HorakA, ObornikM, et al. (2012) Molecular identification and genotyping of Microsporidia in selected hosts. Parasitol Res 110: 689–693.
66. SpringerHM, SchrammM, TaylorGA, HowardJC (2013) Irgm1 (LRG-47), a regulator of cell-autonomous immunity, does not localize to mycobacterial or listerial phagosomes in IFN-gamma-induced mouse cells. J Immunol 191: 1765–1774.
67. MartensS, SabelK, LangeR, UthaiahR, WolfE, et al. (2004) Mechanisms regulating the positioning of mouse p47 resistance GTPases LRG-47 and IIGP1 on cellular membranes: retargeting to plasma membrane induced by phagocytosis. J Immunol 173: 2594–2606.
68. CarlowDA, TehSJ, TehHS (1998) Specific antiviral activity demonstrated by TGTP, a member of a new family of interferon-induced GTPases. J Immunol 161: 2348–2355.
69. BohneW, FergusonDJ, KohlerK, GrossU (2000) Developmental expression of a tandemly repeated, glycine- and serine-rich spore wall protein in the microsporidian pathogen Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Infect Immun 68: 2268–2275.