Host Cofactors and Pharmacologic Ligands Share an Essential Interface in HIV-1 Capsid That Is Lost upon Disassembly


The early steps of HIV-1 infection are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulty in obtaining high-resolution information on encapsidated virus and its interaction with host cofactors. This, in turn, has made it difficult to design effective anti-capsid (CA) drugs. In our present study, we have used stabilized hexamers of HIV-1 CA to obtain complexed crystal structures with two cellular cofactors that are important for HIV-1 infection. These structures and accompanying virology reveal an essential interface in the capsid of HIV-1 that is lost upon viral uncoating. This interface is used to recruit both the nuclear targeting cofactor CPSF6 and NUP153, a nuclear pore component that facilitates nuclear entry. The high-resolution information provided by these structures reveals that the interface is degenerate and CA mutations can be made that selectively perturb sensitivity to each cofactor. This interface is also competed by two antiviral drugs, PF74 and BI-2, whose different mechanisms of action are not fully understood. We show that PF74, but not BI-2, binds across monomers within multimerized capsid affecting an inter-hexamer interface that is crucial for maintaining intact virions and that the addition of saturating concentrations of PF74 causes an irreversible block to viral reverse transcription.


Vyšlo v časopise: Host Cofactors and Pharmacologic Ligands Share an Essential Interface in HIV-1 Capsid That Is Lost upon Disassembly. PLoS Pathog 10(10): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004459
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004459

Souhrn

The early steps of HIV-1 infection are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulty in obtaining high-resolution information on encapsidated virus and its interaction with host cofactors. This, in turn, has made it difficult to design effective anti-capsid (CA) drugs. In our present study, we have used stabilized hexamers of HIV-1 CA to obtain complexed crystal structures with two cellular cofactors that are important for HIV-1 infection. These structures and accompanying virology reveal an essential interface in the capsid of HIV-1 that is lost upon viral uncoating. This interface is used to recruit both the nuclear targeting cofactor CPSF6 and NUP153, a nuclear pore component that facilitates nuclear entry. The high-resolution information provided by these structures reveals that the interface is degenerate and CA mutations can be made that selectively perturb sensitivity to each cofactor. This interface is also competed by two antiviral drugs, PF74 and BI-2, whose different mechanisms of action are not fully understood. We show that PF74, but not BI-2, binds across monomers within multimerized capsid affecting an inter-hexamer interface that is crucial for maintaining intact virions and that the addition of saturating concentrations of PF74 causes an irreversible block to viral reverse transcription.


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Štítky
Hygiena a epidemiológia Infekčné lekárstvo Laboratórium

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