Ecophysiological impacts of Esca, a devastating grapevine trunk disease, on Vitis vinifera L.


Autoři: Loris Ouadi aff001;  Emilie Bruez aff001;  Sylvie Bastien aff001;  Jessica Vallance aff001;  Pascal Lecomte aff001;  Jean-Christophe Domec aff002;  Patrice Rey aff001
Působiště autorů: INRA, ISVV, UMR1065 Santé et Agroécologie du Vignoble (SAVE), Villenave d'Ornon, France aff001;  Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRA UMR1391 Interactions Sol Plante Atmosphère (ISPA), Villenave d'Ornon, France aff002;  Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, UR Œnologie, Villenave d’Ornon, France aff003;  Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, UMR1065 Santé et Agroécologie du Vignoble (SAVE), Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Villenave d'Ornon, France aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222586

Souhrn

Esca is a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD) caused by a broad range of taxonomically unrelated fungal pathogens. These attack grapevine wood tissues inducing necroses even in the conductive vascular tissues, thus affecting the vine physiology and potentially leading to plant death. However, the influence of Esca on leaf and whole-plant water transport disruption remains poorly understood. In this paper, a detailed analysis of xylem-related physiological parameters in grapevines that expressed Esca-foliar symptoms was carried out. The experiments were conducted in a vineyard in the Bordeaux region (France) on cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines, which were monitored for Esca-foliar symptoms over a two-year period. Heat dissipation sap-flow sensors were installed during the summer on grapevines having expressed or not Esca-foliar symptoms. Leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration were also measured. Physiological monitoring showed that sap flow density and whole-plant transpiration of Esca-infected grapevines decreased significantly a week before the first foliar symptoms appeared. When atmospheric water demand (Vapour Pressure Deficit, VPD) was the highest, both parameters tended to be about twice as low in symptomatic grapevines as in asymptomatic ones. Sap flow density data at the maximum transpiration-time, was systematically 29–30% lower in Esca-infected grapevines compared to control plants before or after the appearance of Esca-foliar symptoms. This trend was observed whatever the temperatures and VPD values measured. In Esca-diseased plants, larger amounts of necrotic wood, mainly white rot, were found in the trunk and cordon of symptomatic grapevines compared to healthy ones, suggesting necroses have an influence in reducing the whole-plant hydraulic capacity. This study reveals that the use of physiological monitoring methods, together with the visual monitoring of foliar symptoms, could prove useful in providing accurate measurements of Esca disease severity.

Klíčová slova:

Biology and life sciences – Organisms – Eukaryota – Plants – Flowering plants – Grapevine – Plant science – Plant anatomy – Leaves – Stomata – Wood – Stem anatomy – Plant physiology – Physiology – Sensory physiology – Physiological parameters – Medicine and health sciences – Diagnostic medicine – Signs and symptoms – Pathology and laboratory medicine – Necrosis


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