Drivers of HIV-1 transmission: The Portuguese case

Autoři: Andrea-Clemencia Pineda-Peña aff001;  Marta Pingarilho aff001;  Guangdi Li aff003;  Bram Vrancken aff004;  Pieter Libin aff004;  Perpétua Gomes aff006;  Ricardo Jorge Camacho aff004;  Kristof Theys aff004;  Ana Barroso Abecasis aff001
Působiště autorů: Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal aff001;  Molecular Biology and Immunology Department, Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC) and Basic Sciences Department, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia aff002;  Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China aff003;  Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium aff004;  Artificial Intelligence Lab, Department of Computer Science, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium aff005;  Laboratório de Biologia Molecular (LMCBM, SPC, CHLO-HEM), Lisbon, Portugal aff006;  Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz (CiiEM), Instituto Universitário Egas Moniz, Caparica, Portugal aff007
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218226



Portugal has one of the most severe HIV-1 epidemics in Western Europe. Two subtypes circulate in parallel since the beginning of the epidemic. Comparing their transmission patterns and its association with transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is important to pinpoint transmission hotspots and to develop evidence-based treatment guidelines.


Demographic, clinical and genomic data were collected from 3599 HIV-1 naive patients between 2001 and 2014. Sequences obtained from drug resistance testing were used for subtyping, TDR determination and transmission clusters (TC) analyses.


In Portugal, transmission of subtype B was significantly associated with young males, while transmission of subtype G was associated with older heterosexuals. In Portuguese originated people, there was a decreasing trend both for prevalence of subtype G and for number of TCs in this subtype. The active TCs that were identified (i.e. clusters originated after 2008) were associated with subtype B-infected males residing in Lisbon. TDR was significantly different when comparing subtypes B (10.8% [9.5–12.2]) and G (7.6% [6.4–9.0]) (p = 0.001).


TC analyses shows that, in Portugal, the subtype B epidemic is active and fueled by young male patients residing in Lisbon, while transmission of subtype G is decreasing. Despite similar treatment rates for both subtypes in Portugal, TDR is significantly different between subtypes.

Klíčová slova:

Antimicrobial resistance – Europe – HIV-1 – Phylogenetic analysis – Portugal – Portuguese people – Sequence analysis


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