Activation of the Immune System by Combinations of Common Alleles


Plants and their pathogens are engaged in an endless evolutionary battle. The invention of new strategies by pathogens pushes plants to continuously update their defenses. This in turn leads the pathogens to circumvent these new defenses, and so on. Given the abundance of potential enemies, it is therefore not surprising that genes involved in defense against pathogens are among the most variable in plants. A drawback of this extreme variation in pathogen-recognition mechanisms is that at times the plant mistakes itself for an enemy, leading to autonomous activation of defense responses in the absence of pathogens. Conventional models for this phenomenon, called hybrid necrosis, require the interaction between two different genes. Here we show instead that hybrid necrosis can be triggered by interactions between variants of a single gene, ACD6 (ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 6). Several of these variants are common in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations and can interact to give different levels of activation of the immune system. Our results provide important information into the evolution and operation of the plant defense system. Moreover, the abundant presence of ACD6 functional variation suggests a major role for this gene in modulating plant defenses in nature.


Vyšlo v časopise: Activation of the Immune System by Combinations of Common Alleles. PLoS Genet 10(7): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004459
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004459

Souhrn

Plants and their pathogens are engaged in an endless evolutionary battle. The invention of new strategies by pathogens pushes plants to continuously update their defenses. This in turn leads the pathogens to circumvent these new defenses, and so on. Given the abundance of potential enemies, it is therefore not surprising that genes involved in defense against pathogens are among the most variable in plants. A drawback of this extreme variation in pathogen-recognition mechanisms is that at times the plant mistakes itself for an enemy, leading to autonomous activation of defense responses in the absence of pathogens. Conventional models for this phenomenon, called hybrid necrosis, require the interaction between two different genes. Here we show instead that hybrid necrosis can be triggered by interactions between variants of a single gene, ACD6 (ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 6). Several of these variants are common in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations and can interact to give different levels of activation of the immune system. Our results provide important information into the evolution and operation of the plant defense system. Moreover, the abundant presence of ACD6 functional variation suggests a major role for this gene in modulating plant defenses in nature.


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Genetika Reprodukčná medicína

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PLOS Genetics


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