Sex Chromosome Turnover Contributes to Genomic Divergence between Incipient Stickleback Species


Sex is ubiquitous, but sex-determining mechanisms are evolutionarily labile. Even in taxa with genetic sex determination mechanisms, closely related species often have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of such sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. Using the Japan Sea species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), which has a neo-sex chromosome derived from a Y-autosome fusion, we found that incipient neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes have started to diverge in both coding and non-coding regions and to accumulate genes with sex-biased expression. We further found that non-synonymous mutation rates are elevated on the neo-X chromosome in the Japan Sea lineage. Finally, the neo-X chromosome contributes to phenotypic divergence between the Japan Sea species and the ancestral Pacific Ocean species, but the causative genes were distributed broadly on the neo-X chromosome. These results suggest that neo-sex chromosome formation may create a genomic location where mutations causing inter-species differences can accumulate, thereby promoting phenotypic divergence between incipient species.


Vyšlo v časopise: Sex Chromosome Turnover Contributes to Genomic Divergence between Incipient Stickleback Species. PLoS Genet 10(3): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004223
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004223

Souhrn

Sex is ubiquitous, but sex-determining mechanisms are evolutionarily labile. Even in taxa with genetic sex determination mechanisms, closely related species often have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of such sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. Using the Japan Sea species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), which has a neo-sex chromosome derived from a Y-autosome fusion, we found that incipient neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes have started to diverge in both coding and non-coding regions and to accumulate genes with sex-biased expression. We further found that non-synonymous mutation rates are elevated on the neo-X chromosome in the Japan Sea lineage. Finally, the neo-X chromosome contributes to phenotypic divergence between the Japan Sea species and the ancestral Pacific Ocean species, but the causative genes were distributed broadly on the neo-X chromosome. These results suggest that neo-sex chromosome formation may create a genomic location where mutations causing inter-species differences can accumulate, thereby promoting phenotypic divergence between incipient species.


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Genetika Reprodukčná medicína

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