An Evolutionary Analysis of Antigen Processing and Presentation across Different Timescales Reveals Pervasive Selection


Antigen-presenting cells digest intracellular and extracellular proteins and display the resulting antigenic repertoire on cell surface molecules for recognition by T cells. This process initiates cell-mediated immune responses and is essential to detect infections. The antigenic repertoire is generated by the antigen processing and presentation pathway. Because several pathogens evade immune recognition by hampering this process, genes involved in antigen processing and presentation may represent common natural selection targets. Thus, we analyzed the evolutionary history of these genes during mammalian evolution and in the more recent history of human populations. Evolutionary analyses in mammals indicated that positive selection targeted a very high proportion of genes (24%), and revealed that many selected sites affect positions of fundamental importance to the protein function. In humans, we found different signatures of natural selection acting both on regions that are expected to regulate gene expression levels or timing and on coding variants; two human selected polymorphisms may modulate the susceptibility to Crohn's disease and to HIV-1 infection. Therefore, we provide a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of antigen processing and we show that evolutionary studies can provide useful information concerning the location and nature of functional variants, ultimately helping to clarify phenotypic differences between and within species.


Vyšlo v časopise: An Evolutionary Analysis of Antigen Processing and Presentation across Different Timescales Reveals Pervasive Selection. PLoS Genet 10(3): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004189
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004189

Souhrn

Antigen-presenting cells digest intracellular and extracellular proteins and display the resulting antigenic repertoire on cell surface molecules for recognition by T cells. This process initiates cell-mediated immune responses and is essential to detect infections. The antigenic repertoire is generated by the antigen processing and presentation pathway. Because several pathogens evade immune recognition by hampering this process, genes involved in antigen processing and presentation may represent common natural selection targets. Thus, we analyzed the evolutionary history of these genes during mammalian evolution and in the more recent history of human populations. Evolutionary analyses in mammals indicated that positive selection targeted a very high proportion of genes (24%), and revealed that many selected sites affect positions of fundamental importance to the protein function. In humans, we found different signatures of natural selection acting both on regions that are expected to regulate gene expression levels or timing and on coding variants; two human selected polymorphisms may modulate the susceptibility to Crohn's disease and to HIV-1 infection. Therefore, we provide a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of antigen processing and we show that evolutionary studies can provide useful information concerning the location and nature of functional variants, ultimately helping to clarify phenotypic differences between and within species.


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