Persistence of Virus Reservoirs in ART-Treated SHIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques after Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant


While antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV replication, it does not eradicate the virus from an infected individual. Replication-competent viruses persist on ART and our incomplete understanding of these viral reservoirs greatly complicates the generation of a cure for HIV. In this study we performed, for the first time, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in the established model of SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RM). The HSC originating from the bone marrow were collected before SIV infection. After SIV infection, RM were treated with ART for several weeks to reduce viral replication before performing a total body irradiation and a transplant with their own, pre-infection, stem cells. The irradiation eliminated 94–99% of the circulating CD4+ T-cells, the main cell target of HIV/SIV infection. A successful engraftment of the HSC was observed and blood viral reservoirs were drastically reduced. However, when ART was interrupted, a rapid rebound of plasma viremia was observed in two out of three transplanted RM indicating that the massive reset of the hematopoietic compartment was not sufficient to eliminate the total-body virus reservoir in the setting of short term ART. This model of HSCT in SIV-infected RM provides a new platform to investigate HIV eradication strategies.


Vyšlo v časopise: Persistence of Virus Reservoirs in ART-Treated SHIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques after Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant. PLoS Pathog 10(9): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004406
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004406

Souhrn

While antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV replication, it does not eradicate the virus from an infected individual. Replication-competent viruses persist on ART and our incomplete understanding of these viral reservoirs greatly complicates the generation of a cure for HIV. In this study we performed, for the first time, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in the established model of SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RM). The HSC originating from the bone marrow were collected before SIV infection. After SIV infection, RM were treated with ART for several weeks to reduce viral replication before performing a total body irradiation and a transplant with their own, pre-infection, stem cells. The irradiation eliminated 94–99% of the circulating CD4+ T-cells, the main cell target of HIV/SIV infection. A successful engraftment of the HSC was observed and blood viral reservoirs were drastically reduced. However, when ART was interrupted, a rapid rebound of plasma viremia was observed in two out of three transplanted RM indicating that the massive reset of the hematopoietic compartment was not sufficient to eliminate the total-body virus reservoir in the setting of short term ART. This model of HSCT in SIV-infected RM provides a new platform to investigate HIV eradication strategies.


Zdroje

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Hygiena a epidemiológia Infekčné lekárstvo Laboratórium

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