Foodborne Transmission of Nipah Virus in Syrian Hamsters


In Bangladesh, outbreaks of Nipah virus occur almost every year, resulting in respiratory and neurological disease with high case-fatality rates. Based on epidemiological data Nipah virus is thought to be transmitted from fruit bats to humans via drinking of date palm sap contaminated by bats that drink from the sap stream or collection vessel during collection. Additionally, human-to-human transmission has been shown to occur. Here, we experimentally modeled the proposed transmission cycle of Nipah virus in Bangladesh in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters that drank artificial palm sap containing high doses of Nipah virus became infected with the virus and developed neurological signs of disease. Virus replication occurred mainly in the respiratory rather than the intestinal tract. Most importantly, hamsters infected with Nipah virus through drinking of contaminated palm sap could transmit the virus to uninfected cage mates. As treatments for Nipah virus are currently unavailable and medical interventions are difficult to implement in rural outbreak areas, our best hope to prevent or intervene in future outbreaks of Nipah virus lies in the potential to block transmission from bats to humans and from human to human. Understanding how Nipah virus is transmitted is essential to achieve this.


Vyšlo v časopise: Foodborne Transmission of Nipah Virus in Syrian Hamsters. PLoS Pathog 10(3): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004001
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004001

Souhrn

In Bangladesh, outbreaks of Nipah virus occur almost every year, resulting in respiratory and neurological disease with high case-fatality rates. Based on epidemiological data Nipah virus is thought to be transmitted from fruit bats to humans via drinking of date palm sap contaminated by bats that drink from the sap stream or collection vessel during collection. Additionally, human-to-human transmission has been shown to occur. Here, we experimentally modeled the proposed transmission cycle of Nipah virus in Bangladesh in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters that drank artificial palm sap containing high doses of Nipah virus became infected with the virus and developed neurological signs of disease. Virus replication occurred mainly in the respiratory rather than the intestinal tract. Most importantly, hamsters infected with Nipah virus through drinking of contaminated palm sap could transmit the virus to uninfected cage mates. As treatments for Nipah virus are currently unavailable and medical interventions are difficult to implement in rural outbreak areas, our best hope to prevent or intervene in future outbreaks of Nipah virus lies in the potential to block transmission from bats to humans and from human to human. Understanding how Nipah virus is transmitted is essential to achieve this.


Zdroje

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Hygiena a epidemiológia Infekčné lekárstvo Laboratórium

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PLOS Pathogens


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