Target Cell Availability, Rather than Breast Milk Factors, Dictates Mother-to-Infant Transmission of SIV in Sooty Mangabeys and Rhesus Macaques


Currently 2.
5 million children are infected with HIV, largely as a result of mother-to-child transmission, and there is no effective vaccine or cure. Studies of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection of nonhuman primate species termed “natural hosts” have shown that mother-to-infant transmission of SIV in these animals is rare. Natural hosts are African monkey species that are naturally infected with SIV in the wild but do not develop AIDS. We sought to understand the mechanism by which natural hosts are protected from mother-to-infant transmission of SIV, aiming to translate our findings into novel strategies to prevent perinatal HIV infection. We found that natural host sooty mangabey infants have extremely low levels of target cells for SIV infection in lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues. Direct comparison of infant sooty mangabeys and infant rhesus macaques (non-natural host species with high SIV transmission rates) confirmed that natural hosts have significantly lower levels of SIV target cells compared with non-natural hosts. Analysis of the breast milk of sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques revealed similar levels of virus and ability to inhibit SIV infection. Our study provides evidence for target cell restriction as the main mechanism of protection from mother-to-infant SIV transmission in natural hosts.


Vyšlo v časopise: Target Cell Availability, Rather than Breast Milk Factors, Dictates Mother-to-Infant Transmission of SIV in Sooty Mangabeys and Rhesus Macaques. PLoS Pathog 10(3): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003958
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003958

Souhrn

Currently 2.
5 million children are infected with HIV, largely as a result of mother-to-child transmission, and there is no effective vaccine or cure. Studies of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection of nonhuman primate species termed “natural hosts” have shown that mother-to-infant transmission of SIV in these animals is rare. Natural hosts are African monkey species that are naturally infected with SIV in the wild but do not develop AIDS. We sought to understand the mechanism by which natural hosts are protected from mother-to-infant transmission of SIV, aiming to translate our findings into novel strategies to prevent perinatal HIV infection. We found that natural host sooty mangabey infants have extremely low levels of target cells for SIV infection in lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues. Direct comparison of infant sooty mangabeys and infant rhesus macaques (non-natural host species with high SIV transmission rates) confirmed that natural hosts have significantly lower levels of SIV target cells compared with non-natural hosts. Analysis of the breast milk of sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques revealed similar levels of virus and ability to inhibit SIV infection. Our study provides evidence for target cell restriction as the main mechanism of protection from mother-to-infant SIV transmission in natural hosts.


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