Vpu Exploits the Cross-Talk between BST2 and the ILT7 Receptor to Suppress Anti-HIV-1 Responses by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells


Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce large quantities of type I interferon (IFN-I) upon stimulation by many viruses, including HIV. Their activation is very effective following cell contacts with HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. We investigated whether HIV-1 could regulate the antiviral responses of pDCs triggered upon sensing of infected cells. We show that HIV-1 suppresses the levels of IFN-I produced by pDCs through a process that requires expression of the Vpu accessory protein in virus-producing cells. A well-described role of Vpu is to promote efficient HIV-1 production by counteracting BST2, a host factor that entraps nascent viral particle at the cell surface. Apart from its antiviral activity, BST2 was reported to inhibit IFN-I production by pDCs through binding and activation of the ILT7 pDC-specific inhibitory receptor. Our results reveal that through a highly sophisticated targeted regulation of BST2 levels at the surface of infected cells, Vpu promotes HIV-1 release and limits IFN-I production by pDCs via the negative signaling exerted by the BST2-ILT7 pair. Overall, this study sheds light on a novel Vpu-BST2 interaction that allows HIV-1 to escape pDC antiviral responses. This modulation of pDC antiviral response by HIV Vpu may facilitate the initial viral expansion during acute infection.


Vyšlo v časopise: Vpu Exploits the Cross-Talk between BST2 and the ILT7 Receptor to Suppress Anti-HIV-1 Responses by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. PLoS Pathog 11(7): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005024
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005024

Souhrn

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce large quantities of type I interferon (IFN-I) upon stimulation by many viruses, including HIV. Their activation is very effective following cell contacts with HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. We investigated whether HIV-1 could regulate the antiviral responses of pDCs triggered upon sensing of infected cells. We show that HIV-1 suppresses the levels of IFN-I produced by pDCs through a process that requires expression of the Vpu accessory protein in virus-producing cells. A well-described role of Vpu is to promote efficient HIV-1 production by counteracting BST2, a host factor that entraps nascent viral particle at the cell surface. Apart from its antiviral activity, BST2 was reported to inhibit IFN-I production by pDCs through binding and activation of the ILT7 pDC-specific inhibitory receptor. Our results reveal that through a highly sophisticated targeted regulation of BST2 levels at the surface of infected cells, Vpu promotes HIV-1 release and limits IFN-I production by pDCs via the negative signaling exerted by the BST2-ILT7 pair. Overall, this study sheds light on a novel Vpu-BST2 interaction that allows HIV-1 to escape pDC antiviral responses. This modulation of pDC antiviral response by HIV Vpu may facilitate the initial viral expansion during acute infection.


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