A Molecularly Cloned, Live-Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine SA-14-2 Virus: A Conserved Single Amino Acid in the Hairpin of the Viral E Glycoprotein Determines Neurovirulence in Mice


A group of mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause fatal encephalitis in humans is among the most important of all emerging human pathogens of global significance. This group includes Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis, and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses. In this work, we have developed a reverse genetics system for SA14-14-2, a live JE vaccine that is most commonly used in JE-endemic areas, by constructing an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the full-length SA14-14-2 cDNA. Using this infectious SA14-14-2 cDNA, combined with a mouse model for JEV infection, we have identified a key viral neurovirulence factor, a conserved single amino acid in the ij hairpin adjacent to the fusion loop of the viral E glycoprotein, which regulates viral infectivity into neurons within the central nervous system in vivo and neuronal cells of mouse and human in vitro. Thus, our findings elucidate the molecular basis of the neurovirulence caused by JEV and other closely related encephalitic flaviviruses, a major step in understanding their neuropathogenesis. From a clinical perspective, the discovery of the viral neurovirulence factor and its role will have direct application to the design of a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals to treat and prevent infection of JEV and other taxonomically related neurotropic flaviviruses.


Vyšlo v časopise: A Molecularly Cloned, Live-Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine SA-14-2 Virus: A Conserved Single Amino Acid in the Hairpin of the Viral E Glycoprotein Determines Neurovirulence in Mice. PLoS Pathog 10(7): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004290
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004290

Souhrn

A group of mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause fatal encephalitis in humans is among the most important of all emerging human pathogens of global significance. This group includes Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis, and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses. In this work, we have developed a reverse genetics system for SA14-14-2, a live JE vaccine that is most commonly used in JE-endemic areas, by constructing an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the full-length SA14-14-2 cDNA. Using this infectious SA14-14-2 cDNA, combined with a mouse model for JEV infection, we have identified a key viral neurovirulence factor, a conserved single amino acid in the ij hairpin adjacent to the fusion loop of the viral E glycoprotein, which regulates viral infectivity into neurons within the central nervous system in vivo and neuronal cells of mouse and human in vitro. Thus, our findings elucidate the molecular basis of the neurovirulence caused by JEV and other closely related encephalitic flaviviruses, a major step in understanding their neuropathogenesis. From a clinical perspective, the discovery of the viral neurovirulence factor and its role will have direct application to the design of a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals to treat and prevent infection of JEV and other taxonomically related neurotropic flaviviruses.


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