Pseudoautosomal Region 1 Length Polymorphism in the Human Population


The human sex chromosomes differ in sequence, except for homologous sequences at both ends, termed the pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2). PAR enables the pairing of chromosomes Y and X during meiosis. The PARs are located at the termini of respectively the short and long arms of chromosomes X and Y. The observation of gradual shortening of the Y chromosome over evolutionary time has led to speculations that the Y chromosome is “doomed to extinction.” However, the Y chromosome has been shaped over evolution not only by the loss of genes, but also by addition of genes as a result of interchromosomal exchanges. In this work, we identified males with a duplication on chromosome Xp22.33 of about 136 kb as an incidental finding during a copy number variation screen. We demonstrate that the duplicon is an insertional translocation due to non-allelic homologous recombination from the X to the Y chromosome that is flanked by a long terminal repeat (LTR6B). We show this translocation event has occurred independently multiple times and that the duplicated region recombines with the X chromosome. Therefore, the duplicated region represents an extension of the pseudoautosomal region, representing a novel mechanism shaping sex chromosomal evolution in humans.


Vyšlo v časopise: Pseudoautosomal Region 1 Length Polymorphism in the Human Population. PLoS Genet 10(11): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004578
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004578

Souhrn

The human sex chromosomes differ in sequence, except for homologous sequences at both ends, termed the pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2). PAR enables the pairing of chromosomes Y and X during meiosis. The PARs are located at the termini of respectively the short and long arms of chromosomes X and Y. The observation of gradual shortening of the Y chromosome over evolutionary time has led to speculations that the Y chromosome is “doomed to extinction.” However, the Y chromosome has been shaped over evolution not only by the loss of genes, but also by addition of genes as a result of interchromosomal exchanges. In this work, we identified males with a duplication on chromosome Xp22.33 of about 136 kb as an incidental finding during a copy number variation screen. We demonstrate that the duplicon is an insertional translocation due to non-allelic homologous recombination from the X to the Y chromosome that is flanked by a long terminal repeat (LTR6B). We show this translocation event has occurred independently multiple times and that the duplicated region recombines with the X chromosome. Therefore, the duplicated region represents an extension of the pseudoautosomal region, representing a novel mechanism shaping sex chromosomal evolution in humans.


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