1. Towler DA, Clemens TL. Vitamin D and cardiovascular medicine. In: Feldman D, Pike JW, Glorieux FH (eds). Vitamin D. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press 2005: 899–910.
2. Somjen D, Weisman Y, Kohen F et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed in human vascular smooth muscle cells and is upregulated by parathyroid hormone and estrogenic compounds. Circulation 2005; 111: 1666–1671.
3. Hewison M, Zehnder D, Chakraverty R et al. Vitamin D and barrier function: a novel role for extra-renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2004; 215: 31–38.
4. Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2008; 117: 503–511.
5. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Hollis BW et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 1174–1180.
6. Dobnig H, Pilz S, Scharnagl H et al. Independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 1340–1349.
7. Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB et al. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92: 2017–2029.
8. Linhartová K, Veselka J, Sterbáková G et al. Parathyroid hormone and vitamin D levels are independently associated with calcific aortic stenosis. Circ J 2008; 72: 245–250.
9. Wong MS, Delansorne R, Man RY et al. Vitamin D derivatives acutely reduce endothelium-dependent contractions in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2008; 295: H289–H296.
10. Zittermann A, Koerfer R. Protective and toxic effects of vitamin D on vascular calcification: clinical implications. Mol Aspects Med 2008; 29: 423–432.
11. Basalyga DM, Simionescu DT, Xiong W et al. Elastin degradation and calcification in an abdominal aorta injury model: role of matrix metalloproteinases. Circulation 2004; 110: 3480–3487.
12. Qin X, Corriere MA, Matrisian LM et al. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition attenuates aortic calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26: 1510–1516.
13. Zittermann A, Koerfer R. Protective and toxic effects of vitamin D on vascular calcification: clinical implications. Mol Aspects Med 2008; 29: 423–432.
14. Inoue T, Kawashima H. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates 45Ca2+-uptake by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells derived from rat aorta. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988; 152: 1388–1394.
15. Talmor Y, Golan E, Benchetrit S et al. Calcitriol blunts the deleterious impact of advanced glycation end products on endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2008; 294: F1059–F1064.
16. Robertson L, Grip L, Mattsson Hultén L et al. Release of protein as well as activity of MMP-9 from unstable atherosclerotic plaques during percutaneous coronary intervention. J Intern Med 2007; 262: 659–667.
17. Timms PM, Mannan N, Hitman GA et al. Circulating MMP9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP-1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders? QJM 2002; 95: 787–796.
18. London GM, Guérin AP, Verbeke FH et al. Mineral metabolism and arterial functions in end-stage renal disease: potential role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 613–620.
19. Andrade J, Er L, Ignaszewski A et al. Exploration of association of 1,25-OH2D3 with augmentation index, a composite measure of arterial stiffness. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 1800–1806.
20. Mayer O Jr, Filipovský J, Seidlerová J et al. The association between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased aortic stiffness. J Hum Hypertens 2011. Epub ahead of print.
21. Tarasov KV, Sanna S, Scuteri A et al. COL4A1 is associated with arterial stiffness by genome-wide association scan. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2009; 2: 151–158.
22. Tishkoff DX, Nibbelink K, Holmberg KH et al. Functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the t-tubules of cardiac myocytes: VDR knockout cardiomyocyte contractility. Endocrinology 2008; 149: 558–564.
23. Simpson RU, Hershey SH, Nibbelink KA et al. Characterization of heart size and blood pressure in the vitamin D receptor knockout mouse. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2007; 103: 521–524.
24. Mancuso P, Rahman A, Hershey SD et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 treatment reduces cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular diameter in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure-prone (cp/+) rats independent of changes in serum leptin. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2008; 51: 559–564.
25. Zittermann A, Schleithoff SS, Götting C et al. Poor outcome in end-stage heart failure patients with low circulating calcitriol levels. Eur J Heart Fail 2008; 10: 321–327.
26. Boxer RS, Dauser DA, Walsh SJ et al. The association between vitamin D and inflammation with the 6-minute walk and frailty in patients with heart failure. Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 454–461.
27. Autier P, Gandini S. Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 1730–1737.
28. Witham MD, Nadir MA, Struthers AD. Effect of vitamin D on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens 2009; 27: 1948–1954.
29. Braam LA, Hoeks AP, Brouns F et al. Beneficial effects of vitamins D and K on the elastic properties of the vessel wall in postmenopausal women: a follow-up study. Thromb Haemost 2004; 91: 373–380.
30. Dong Y, Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, Pollock NK et al. A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95: 4584–4591.
31. Kovesdy CP, Ahmadzadeh S, Anderson JE et al. Association of activated vitamin D treatment and mortality in chronic kidney disease. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 397–403.
32. Trivedi DP, Doll R, Khaw KT. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin DS (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ 2003; 326: 469.
33. Hsia J, Heiss G, Ren H et al. Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular events. Circulation 2007; 115: 846–854.