1. SoulierJ, GrolletL, OksenhendlerE, CacoubP, Cazals-HatemD, et al. (1995) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman's disease. Blood 86: 1276–1280.
2. ChangY, CesarmanE, PessinMS, LeeF, CulpepperJ, et al. (1994) Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 266: 1865–1869.
3. RussoJJ, BohenzkyRA, ChienMC, ChenJ, YanM, et al. (1996) Nucleotide sequence of the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV8). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 14862–14867.
4. CaiQ, VermaSC, LuJ, RobertsonES (2010) Molecular biology of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and related oncogenesis. Adv Virus Res 78: 87–142.
5. MesriEA, CesarmanE, BoshoffC (2010) Kaposi's sarcoma and its associated herpesvirus. Nat Rev Cancer 10: 707–719.
6. VermaSC, LanK, RobertsonE (2007) Structure and function of latency-associated nuclear antigen. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 312: 101–136.
7. LukacDM, RenneR, KirshnerJR, GanemD (1998) Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection from latency by expression of the ORF 50 transactivator, a homolog of the EBV R protein. Virology 252: 304–312.
8. NakamuraH, LuM, GwackY, SouvlisJ, ZeichnerSL, et al. (2003) Global changes in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus gene expression patterns following expression of a tetracycline-inducible Rta transactivator. J Virol 77: 4205–4220.
9. SunR, LinSF, GradovilleL, YuanY, ZhuF, et al. (1998) A viral gene that activates lytic cycle expression of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 10866–10871.
10. XuY, AuCoinDP, HueteAR, CeiSA, HansonLJ, et al. (2005) A Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 ORF50 deletion mutant is defective for reactivation of latent virus and DNA replication. J Virol 79: 3479–3487.
11. HassmanLM, EllisonTJ, KedesDH (2011) KSHV infects a subset of human tonsillar B cells, driving proliferation and plasmablast differentiation. J Clin Invest 121: 752–768.
12. McAllisterSC, MosesAV (2007) Endothelial cell- and lymphocyte-based in vitro systems for understanding KSHV biology. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 312: 211–244.
13. GanemD (2006) KSHV infection and the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. Annu Rev Pathol 1: 273–296.
14. HockelM, SchlengerK, HockelS, AralB, SchafferU, et al. (1998) Tumor hypoxia in pelvic recurrences of cervical cancer. Int J Cancer 79: 365–369.
15. StadlerP, BeckerA, FeldmannHJ, HansgenG, DunstJ, et al. (1999) Influence of the hypoxic subvolume on the survival of patients with head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 44: 749–754.
16. TalksKL, TurleyH, GatterKC, MaxwellPH, PughCW, et al. (2000) The expression and distribution of the hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in normal human tissues, cancers, and tumor-associated macrophages. Am J Pathol 157: 411–421.
17. ThomlinsonRH, GrayLH (1955) The histological structure of some human lung cancers and the possible implications for radiotherapy. Br J Cancer 9: 539–549.
18. CaiQ, LanK, VermaSC, SiH, LinD, et al. (2006) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent protein LANA interacts with HIF-1 alpha to upregulate RTA expression during hypoxia: Latency control under low oxygen conditions. J Virol 80: 7965–7975.
19. DavisDA, RinderknechtAS, ZoeteweijJP, AokiY, Read-ConnoleEL, et al. (2001) Hypoxia induces lytic replication of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Blood 97: 3244–3250.
20. CaiQ, MurakamiM, SiH, RobertsonES (2007) A potential alpha-helix motif in the amino terminus of LANA encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is critical for nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha in normoxia. J Virol 81: 10413–10423.
21. CarrollPA, KenersonHL, YeungRS, LagunoffM (2006) Latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of endothelial cells activates hypoxia-induced factors. J Virol 80: 10802–10812.
22. CaiQ, VermaSC, KumarP, MaM, RobertsonES (2010) Hypoxia inactivates the VHL tumor suppressor through PIASy-mediated SUMO modification. PLoS One 5: e9720.
23. Carbia-NagashimaA, GerezJ, Perez-CastroC, Paez-PeredaM, SilbersteinS, et al. (2007) RSUME, a small RWD-containing protein, enhances SUMO conjugation and stabilizes HIF-1alpha during hypoxia. Cell 131: 309–323.
24. ChengJ, KangX, ZhangS, YehET (2007) SUMO-specific protease 1 is essential for stabilization of HIF1alpha during hypoxia. Cell 131: 584–595.
25. van HagenM, OvermeerRM, AbolvardiSS, VertegaalAC (2010) RNF4 and VHL regulate the proteasomal degradation of SUMO-conjugated Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2alpha. Nucleic Acids Res 38: 1922–1931.
26. SeelerJS, DejeanA (2003) Nuclear and unclear functions of SUMO. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4: 690–699.
27. RodriguezMS, DargemontC, HayRT (2001) SUMO-1 conjugation in vivo requires both a consensus modification motif and nuclear targeting. J Biol Chem 276: 12654–12659.
28. SramkoM, MarkusJ, KabatJ, WolffL, BiesJ (2006) Stress-induced inactivation of the c-Myb transcription factor through conjugation of SUMO-2/3 proteins. J Biol Chem 281: 40065–40075.
29. SaitohH, HincheyJ (2000) Functional heterogeneity of small ubiquitin-related protein modifiers SUMO-1 versus SUMO-2/3. J Biol Chem 275: 6252–6258.
30. GuoD, LiM, ZhangY, YangP, EckenrodeS, et al. (2004) A functional variant of SUMO4, a new I kappa B alpha modifier, is associated with type 1 diabetes. Nat Genet 36: 837–841.
31. MintyA, DumontX, KaghadM, CaputD (2000) Covalent modification of p73alpha by SUMO-1. Two-hybrid screening with p73 identifies novel SUMO-1-interacting proteins and a SUMO-1 interaction motif. J Biol Chem 275: 36316–36323.
32. SongJ, DurrinLK, WilkinsonTA, KrontirisTG, ChenY (2004) Identification of a SUMO-binding motif that recognizes SUMO-modified proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 14373–14378.
33. HannichJT, LewisA, KroetzMB, LiSJ, HeideH, et al. (2005) Defining the SUMO-modified proteome by multiple approaches in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 280: 4102–4110.
34. LiZ, WangD, NaX, SchoenSR, MessingEM, et al. (2003) The VHL protein recruits a novel KRAB-A domain protein to repress HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity. Embo J 22: 1857–1867.
35. HeF, LiL, KimD, WenB, DengX, et al. (2007) Adenovirus-mediated expression of a dominant negative Ku70 fragment radiosensitizes human tumor cells under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Cancer Res 67: 634–642.
36. KoumenisC, AlarconR, HammondE, SutphinP, HoffmanW, et al. (2001) Regulation of p53 by hypoxia: dissociation of transcriptional repression and apoptosis from p53-dependent transactivation. Mol Cell Biol 21: 1297–1310.
37. FreedmanSJ, SunZY, PoyF, KungAL, LivingstonDM, et al. (2002) Structural basis for recruitment of CBP/p300 by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99: 5367–5372.
38. GirdwoodD, BumpassD, VaughanOA, ThainA, AndersonLA, et al. (2003) P300 transcriptional repression is mediated by SUMO modification. Mol Cell 11: 1043–1054.
39. KuoHY, ChangCC, JengJC, HuHM, LinDY, et al. (2005) SUMO modification negatively modulates the transcriptional activity of CREB-binding protein via the recruitment of Daxx. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102: 16973–16978.
40. PungaliyaP, KulkarniD, ParkHJ, MarshallH, ZhengH, et al. (2007) TOPORS functions as a SUMO-1 E3 ligase for chromatin-modifying proteins. J Proteome Res 6: 3918–3923.
41. LiX, LinHH, ChenH, XuX, ShihHM, et al. (2010) SUMOylation of the transcriptional co-repressor KAP1 is regulated by the serine and threonine phosphatase PP1. Sci Signal 3: ra32.
42. GarberAC, ShuMA, HuJ, RenneR (2001) DNA binding and modulation of gene expression by the latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 75: 7882–7892.
43. MillerG, HestonL, GroganE, GradovilleL, RigsbyM, et al. (1997) Selective switch between latency and lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus in dually infected body cavity lymphoma cells. J Virol 71: 314–324.
44. CaiQL, KnightJS, VermaSC, ZaldP, RobertsonES (2006) EC5S ubiquitin complex is recruited by KSHV latent antigen LANA for degradation of the VHL and p53 tumor suppressors. PLoS Pathog 2: e116.
45. GillG (2005) Something about SUMO inhibits transcription. Curr Opin Genet Dev 15: 536–541.
46. HayRT (2005) SUMO: a history of modification. Mol Cell 18: 1–12.
47. HofmannH, FlossS, StammingerT (2000) Covalent modification of the transactivator protein IE2-p86 of human cytomegalovirus by conjugation to the ubiquitin-homologous proteins SUMO-1 and hSMT3b. J Virol 74: 2510–2524.
48. WuYC, RoarkAA, BianXL, WilsonVG (2008) Modification of papillomavirus E2 proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier family members (SUMOs). Virology 378: 329–338.
49. AdamsonAL, KenneyS (2001) Epstein-barr virus immediate-early protein BZLF1 is SUMO-1 modified and disrupts promyelocytic leukemia bodies. J Virol 75: 2388–2399.
50. ChangPC, IzumiyaY, WuCY, FitzgeraldLD, CampbellM, et al. (2010) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a SUMO E3 ligase that is SIM-dependent and SUMO-2/3-specific. J Biol Chem 285: 5266–5273.
51. IzumiyaY, EllisonTJ, YehET, JungJU, LuciwPA, et al. (2005) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-bZIP represses gene transcription via SUMO modification. J Virol 79: 9912–9925.
52. YangSH, GalanisA, WittyJ, SharrocksAD (2006) An extended consensus motif enhances the specificity of substrate modification by SUMO. Embo J 25: 5083–5093.
53. CampbellM, IzumiyaY (2012) Post-Translational Modifications of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Regulatory Proteins - SUMO and KSHV. Front Microbiol 3: 31.
54. FriedmanJR, FredericksWJ, JensenDE, SpeicherDW, HuangXP, et al. (1996) KAP-1, a novel corepressor for the highly conserved KRAB repression domain. Genes Dev 10: 2067–2078.
55. Le DouarinB, NielsenAL, GarnierJM, IchinoseH, JeanmouginF, et al. (1996) A possible involvement of TIF1 alpha and TIF1 beta in the epigenetic control of transcription by nuclear receptors. Embo J 15: 6701–6715.
56. UnderhillC, QutobMS, YeeSP, TorchiaJ (2000) A novel nuclear receptor corepressor complex, N-CoR, contains components of the mammalian SWI/SNF complex and the corepressor KAP-1. J Biol Chem 275: 40463–40470.
57. SripathySP, StevensJ, SchultzDC (2006) The KAP1 corepressor functions to coordinate the assembly of de novo HP1-demarcated microenvironments of heterochromatin required for KRAB zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol 26: 8623–8638.
58. IvanovAV, PengH, YurchenkoV, YapKL, NegorevDG, et al. (2007) PHD domain-mediated E3 ligase activity directs intramolecular sumoylation of an adjacent bromodomain required for gene silencing. Mol Cell 28: 823–837.
59. LiX, LeeYK, JengJC, YenY, SchultzDC, et al. (2007) Role for KAP1 serine 824 phosphorylation and sumoylation/desumoylation switch in regulating KAP1-mediated transcriptional repression. J Biol Chem 282: 36177–36189.
60. ZivY, BielopolskiD, GalantyY, LukasC, TayaY, et al. (2006) Chromatin relaxation in response to DNA double-strand breaks is modulated by a novel ATM- and KAP-1 dependent pathway. Nat Cell Biol 8: 870–876.
61. ZhangY, IratniR, Erdjument-BromageH, TempstP, ReinbergD (1997) Histone deacetylases and SAP18, a novel polypeptide, are components of a human Sin3 complex. Cell 89: 357–364.
62. ChangPC, FitzgeraldLD, Van GeelenA, IzumiyaY, EllisonTJ, et al. (2009) Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 as a latency regulator for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and its modulation by the viral protein kinase. Cancer Res 69: 5681–5689.
63. WeiF, ZapraznaK, WangJ, AtchisonML (2009) PU.1 can recruit BCL6 to DNA to repress gene expression in germinal center B cells. Mol Cell Biol 29: 4612–4622.
64. BaiY, SrinivasanL, PerkinsL, AtchisonML (2005) Protein acetylation regulates both PU.1 transactivation and Ig kappa 3′ enhancer activity. J Immunol 175: 5160–5169.
65. SiH, VermaSC, LampsonMA, CaiQ, RobertsonES (2008) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA can interact with the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein to regulate genome maintenance and segregation. J Virol 82: 6734–6746.