Transfer RNAs Mediate the Rapid Adaptation of to Oxidative Stress


All organisms need to respond quickly to sudden environmental changes. Translational regulation can occur in response to environmental stresses within minutes, which is much faster than transcriptional regulation, and thus normally provides immediate adaptation. Eukaryotic cells can manipulate their tRNA molecules, mainly in a reversible manner, to suppress translation. Here, we showed for the first time that bacteria respond to oxidative stress by adjusting the translational system in a manner that differs from that of eukaryotes. The bacteria nonspecifically, irreversibly, and enzymatically degrade tRNAs to block protein synthesis. Interestingly, we showed that elevated tRNA concentrations lead to opposing effects by causing increased protein aggregation, which impairs fitness under normal conditions but facilitates adaptation under oxidative stress, including that caused by antibiotics. Our results provide a new understanding of the role of global adjustments to the entire translation system during stress adaptation in bacteria. This mechanism may also be involved in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.


Vyšlo v časopise: Transfer RNAs Mediate the Rapid Adaptation of to Oxidative Stress. PLoS Genet 11(6): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005302
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005302

Souhrn

All organisms need to respond quickly to sudden environmental changes. Translational regulation can occur in response to environmental stresses within minutes, which is much faster than transcriptional regulation, and thus normally provides immediate adaptation. Eukaryotic cells can manipulate their tRNA molecules, mainly in a reversible manner, to suppress translation. Here, we showed for the first time that bacteria respond to oxidative stress by adjusting the translational system in a manner that differs from that of eukaryotes. The bacteria nonspecifically, irreversibly, and enzymatically degrade tRNAs to block protein synthesis. Interestingly, we showed that elevated tRNA concentrations lead to opposing effects by causing increased protein aggregation, which impairs fitness under normal conditions but facilitates adaptation under oxidative stress, including that caused by antibiotics. Our results provide a new understanding of the role of global adjustments to the entire translation system during stress adaptation in bacteria. This mechanism may also be involved in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.


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