Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study of a Wide Range of Medical and Social Outcomes

In a population-wide observational cohort, Seena Fazel and colleagues use a sibling-matched design to examine the burden of long-term outcomes associated with traumatic brain injury.

Vyšlo v časopise: Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study of a Wide Range of Medical and Social Outcomes. PLoS Med 13(8): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002103
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002103


In a population-wide observational cohort, Seena Fazel and colleagues use a sibling-matched design to examine the burden of long-term outcomes associated with traumatic brain injury.


1. World Health Organization. Neurological disorders: Public health challenges. Geneva, Switzerland 2006.

2. Faul M, Xu L, Wald M, Coronado VG. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002–2006. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. 2010:2–70.

3. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Head injury: Triage, assessment, and early management of head injury in children, young people and adults. NICE clinical guideline 176. 2014.

4. Styrke J, Stålnacke B-M, Sojka P, Björnstig U. Traumatic brain injuries in a well-defined population: epidemiological aspects and severity. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(9):1425–36. 17892405

5. McKinlay A, Grace R, Horwood L, Fergusson D, Ridder EM, MacFarlane M. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury among children, adolescents and young adults: prospective evidence from a birth cohort. Brain inj. 2008;22(2):175–81. doi: 10.1080/02699050801888824 18240046

6. Feigin VL, Theadom A, Barker-Collo S, Starkey NJ, McPherson K, Kahan M, et al. Incidence of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: a population-based study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(1):53–64. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70262-4 23177532

7. Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, Bailes J, McCrea M, Cantu RC, Randolph C, et al. Association between recurrent concussion and late-life cognitive impairment in retired professional football players. Neurosurgery. 2005;57(4):719–26. 16239884

8. Fazel S, Lichtenstein P, Grann M, Långström N. Risk of violent crime in individuals with epilepsy and traumatic brain injury: a 35-year Swedish population study. PLoS Med. 2011;8(12):e1001150. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001150 22215988

9. Daneshvar DH, Nowinski CJ, McKee AC, Cantu RC. The epidemiology of sport-related concussion. Clin Sports Med. 2011;30(1):1–17. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2010.08.006 21074078

10. McMillan TM, Teasdale GM, Stewart E. Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 12–14 year follow-up of a prospective cohort. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83(11):1086–91. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-302746 22645256

11. McKee AC, Stein TD, Nowinski CJ, Stern RA, Daneshvar DH, Alvarez VE, et al. The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Brain. Epub 2012 Dec 2. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws307

12. Kerr ZY, Marshall SW, Harding HP, Guskiewicz KM. Nine-year risk of depression diagnosis increases with increasing self-reported concussions in retired professional football players. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(10):2206–12. 22922518

13. McKee AC, Robinson ME. Military-related traumatic brain injury and neurodegeneration. Alzheimers Dement. 2014;10(3):S242–S53. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2014.04.003 24924675

14. Pearce AJ, Hoy K, Rogers MA, Corp DT, Davies CB, Maller JJ, et al. Acute motor, neurocognitive and neurophysiological change following concussion injury in Australian amateur football. A prospective multimodal investigation. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. Epub 2014 Jul 24. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.010

15. Orlovska S, Pedersen MS, Benros ME, Mortensen PB, Agerbo E, Nordentoft M. Head injury as risk factor for psychiatric disorders: A nationwide register-based follow-up study of 113,906 persons with head injury. Am J Psychiat. 2014;171(4):463–9. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13020190 24322397

16. Fazel S, Wolf A, Pillas D, Lichtenstein P, Långström N. Suicide, fatal injuries, and other causes of premature mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury: A 41-year Swedish population study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(3):326–33. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.3935 24430827

17. Ewing-Cobbs L, Prasad MR, Mendez D, Barnes MA, Swank P. Social interaction in young children with inflicted and accidental traumatic brain injury: relations with family resources and social outcomes. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013;19(05):497–507.

18. Ryan NP, Anderson V, Godfrey C, Beauchamp MH, Coleman L, Eren S, et al. Predictors of very-long-term sociocognitive function after pediatric traumatic brain injury: evidence for the vulnerability of the immature “social brain”. J Neurotrauma. 2014;31(7):649–57. doi: 10.1089/neu.2013.3153 24147615

19. Anderson V, Brown S, Newitt H, Hoile H. Educational, Vocational, Psychosocial, and Quality‐of‐Life Outcomes for Adult Survivors of Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2009;24(5):303–12. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0b013e3181ada830 19858964

20. Anderson V, Brown S, Newitt H, Hoile H. Long-term outcome from childhood traumatic brain injury: intellectual ability, personality, and quality of life. Neuropsychology. 2011;25(2):176. doi: 10.1037/a0021217 21219074

21. Wilson JL, Pettigrew LE, Teasdale GM. Structured interviews for the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale: guidelines for their use. J Neurotrauma. 1998;15(8):573–85. 9726257

22. Gary KW, Wilson KB. Traumatic brain injury: Short, long, and very long-term vocational outcomes. Brain injury: Functional aspects, rehabilitation and prevention. Rejecka, Croatia: InTech; 2012. p. 175–98.

23. Lenroot RK, Giedd JN. Brain development in children and adolescents: insights from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(6):718–29. 16887188

24. Paus T, Keshavan M, Giedd JN. Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(12):947–57. doi: 10.1038/nrn2513 19002191

25. D’Onofrio BM, Lahey BB, Turkheimer E, Lichtenstein P. Critical need for family-based, quasi-experimental designs in integrating genetic and social science research. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(S1):S46–S55.

26. Narusyte J, Ropponen A, Silventoinen K, Alexanderson K, Kaprio J, Samuelsson A, et al. Genetic liability to disability pension in women and men: a prospective population-based twin study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(8):e23143. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023143 21850258

27. Plomin R, Deary I. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings. Mol Psychiatry. 2014;20:98–108. doi: 10.1038/mp.2014.105 25224258

28. Polderman TJ, Benyamin B, de Leeuw CA, Sullivan PF, van Bochoven A, Visscher PM, et al. Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nat Genet. 2015;47:702–9. doi: 10.1038/ng.3285 25985137

29. Nilsson AC, Spetz CL, Carsjo K, Nightingale R, Smedby B. Reliability of the hospital registry. The diagnostic data are better than their reputation. Lakartidningen. 1994;91:603–5.

30. Gedeborg R, Engquist H, Berglund L, Michaëlsson K. Identification of incident injuries in hospital discharge registers. Epidemiology. 2008:860–7. 18938655

31. Narusyte J, Ropponen A, Alexanderson K, Svedberg P. The role of familial factors in the associations between sickness absence and disability pension or mortality. Eur J Public Health. 2014;24(1):106–10. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckt039 23531525

32. Halldén K. The Swedish educational system and classifying education using the Isced-97. In: Schneider SL, editor. The International Standard Classification of Education (Isced-97): An evaluation of content and criterion validity in 15 European countries. Mannheim: MZES; 2008.

33. Sariaslan A, Larsson H, D'Onofrio BM, Långström N, Lichtenstein P. Childhood family income, adolescent violent criminality and substance misuse: quasi-experimental total population study. Br J Psychiatry. 2014;205:286–90. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.136200 25147371

34. Allison PD. Fixed effects regression models. Sage, Thousand Oaks; 2009.

35. Carlin JB, Gurrin LC, Sterne JA, Morley R, Dwyer T. Regression models for twin studies: a critical review. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34(5):1089–99. 16087687

36. StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Station: StataCorp LP; 2015.

37. Dahlqwist E, Sjölander A. Model-based estimation of confounder-adjusted attributable fractions. R package AF 0.1.1. 2015. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/AF/index.html.

38. R Core Team. R: A Language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2015.

39. von Knorring L, Åkerblad A-C, Bengtsson F, Carlsson Å, Ekselius L. Cost of depression: effect of adherence and treatment response. Eur Psychiatry. 2006;21(6):349–54. 16777385

40. Fazel S, Grann M. The population impact of severe mental illness on violent crime. Am J Psychiat. 2006;163(8):1397–403. 16877653

41. Anderson V, Godfrey C, Rosenfeld JV, Catroppa C. Predictors of cognitive function and recovery 10 years after traumatic brain injury in young children. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):e254–e61. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0311 22271691

42. Crowe LM, Catroppa C, Babl FE, Anderson V. Intellectual, behavioral, and social outcomes of accidental traumatic brain injury in early childhood. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):e262–e8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0438 22271692

43. Nudo RJ. Recovery after brain injury: mechanisms and principles. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7.

44. Cancelliere C, Kristman VL, Cassidy JD, Hincapié CA, Côté P, Boyle E, et al. Systematic review of return to work after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;95(3):S201–S9. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.10.010 24581906

45. Griffen J, Hanks R. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes from traumatic brain injury. Handbook on the neuropsychology of traumatic brain injury: Springer; 2014. p. 25–45.

46. Guskiewicz KM, Valovich McLeod TC. Pediatric sports-related concussion. PM&R. 2011;3(4):353–64.

47. Pearce AJ, Hoy K, Rogers MA, Corp DT, Maller JJ, Drury HG, et al. The long-term effects of sports concussion on retired Australian football players: A study using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. J Neurotrauma. 2014;31(13):1139–45. doi: 10.1089/neu.2013.3219 24579780

48. Spira JL, Lathan CE, Bleiberg J, Tsao JW. The impact of multiple concussions on emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in active duty United States marines independent of combat exposure or emotional distress. J Neurotrauma. 2014;31(22):1823–34. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3363 25003552

49. Guskiewicz K, Teel E, McCrea M. Concussion: key stakeholders and multidisciplinary participation in making sports safe. Neurosurgery. 2014;75:S113–S8. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000494 25232875

50. Marshall SW, Guskiewicz KM, Shankar V, McCrea M, Cantu RC. Epidemiology of sports-related concussion in seven US high school and collegiate sports. Inj Epidemiol. 2015;2(1):13.

51. Benson BW, McIntosh AS, Maddocks D, Herring SA, Raftery M, Dvořák J. What are the most effective risk-reduction strategies in sport concussion? Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):321–6. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092216 23479492

52. Rowson S, Duma SM, Greenwald RM, Beckwith JG, Chu JJ, Guskiewicz KM, et al. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football? Technical note. J Neurosurg. 2014;120(4):919–22. doi: 10.3171/2014.1.JNS13916 24484225

53. McCrea M, Hammeke T, Olsen G, Leo P, Guskiewicz K. Unreported concussion in high school football players: implications for prevention. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14(1):13–7. 14712161

54. Halstead ME, Walter KD. Sport-related concussion in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):597–615. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2005 20805152

55. Williamson I, Goodman D. Converging evidence for the under-reporting of concussions in youth ice hockey. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(2):128–32. 16431999

56. Llewellyn T, Burdette GT, Joyner AB, Buckley TA. Concussion reporting rates at the conclusion of an intercollegiate athletic career. Clin J Sport Med. 2014;24(1):76–9. doi: 10.1097/01.jsm.0000432853.77520.3d 24157468

57. Thurman DJ. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in children and youths: A review of research since 1990 [Epub ahead of print 14 Aug 2014]. J Child Neurol.

58. OECD. Society at a glance 2014. OECD Social Indicators. OECD Publishing, 2014.

59. OECD. Health at a glance 2010. OECD Publishing, 2010.

60. Wittchen H-U, Jacobi F, Rehm J, Gustavsson A, Svensson M, Jönsson B, et al. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21(9):655–79. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.07.018 21896369

61. Ramlackhansingh AF, Brooks DJ, Greenwood RJ, Bose SK, Turkheimer FE, Kinnunen KM, et al. Inflammation after trauma: microglial activation and traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2011;70(3):374–83. doi: 10.1002/ana.22455 21710619

62. Sharp DJ, Scott G, Leech R. Network dysfunction after traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol. 2014;10(3):156–66. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.15 24514870

Interné lekárstvo

Článok vyšiel v časopise

PLOS Medicine

2016 Číslo 8

Najčítanejšie v tomto čísle

Zvýšte si kvalifikáciu online z pohodlia domova

Eozinofilní granulomatóza s polyangiitidou
nový kurz

Betablokátory a Ca antagonisté z jiného úhlu
Autori: prof. MUDr. Michal Vrablík, Ph.D., MUDr. Petr Janský

Autori: doc. MUDr. Petr Čáp, Ph.D.

Farmakoterapie akutní a chronické bolesti

Získaná hemofilie - Povědomí o nemoci a její diagnostika

Všetky kurzy
Zabudnuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa

Zabudnuté heslo

Zadajte e-mailovú adresu, s ktorou ste vytvárali účet. Budú Vám na ňu zasielané informácie k nastaveniu nového hesla.


Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa