Disentangling the Association between Statins, Cholesterol, and Colorectal Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study


In a nested case-control study, Ronac Mamtani and colleagues investigate the associations between cholesterol, statin use, and colorectal cancer among primary care patients in the United Kingdom.


Vyšlo v časopise: Disentangling the Association between Statins, Cholesterol, and Colorectal Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study. PLoS Med 13(4): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002007
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002007

Souhrn

In a nested case-control study, Ronac Mamtani and colleagues investigate the associations between cholesterol, statin use, and colorectal cancer among primary care patients in the United Kingdom.


Zdroje

1. Gu Q, Paulose-Ram R, Burt VL, Kit BK (2014) Prescription cholesterol-lowering medication use in adults aged 40 and over: United States, 2003–2012. NCHS Data Brief: 1–8.

2. Jick H, Wilson A, Wiggins P, Chamberlin DP (2012) Comparison of prescription drug costs in the United States and the United Kingdom, Part 1: statins. Pharmacotherapy 32: 1–6. doi: 10.1002/PHAR.1005 22392823

3. Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, Bairey Merz CN, Blum CB, et al. (2014) 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 129: S1–45. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.0000437738.63853.7a 24222016

4. Lipid modification: Cardiovascular risk assessment and the modification of blood lipids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. NICE clinical guideline CG181. July 2014.

5. Pencina MJ, Navar-Boggan AM, D'Agostino RB Sr., Williams K, Neely B, et al. (2014) Application of new cholesterol guidelines to a population-based sample. N Engl J Med 370: 1422–1431. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1315665 24645848

6. Redberg RF, Katz MH (2012) Healthy men should not take statins. JAMA 307: 1491–1492. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.423 22496261

7. Bonovas S, Filioussi K, Tsavaris N, Sitaras NM (2006) Statins and cancer risk: a literature-based meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of 35 randomized controlled trials. J Clin Oncol 24: 4808–4817. 17001070

8. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration, Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J, Holland LE, et al. (2010) Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet 376: 1670–1681. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61350-5 21067804

9. Liu Y, Tang W, Wang J, Xie L, Li T, et al. (2014) Association between statin use and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 42 studies. Cancer Causes Control 25: 237–249. doi: 10.1007/s10552-013-0326-6 24265089

10. Garbe E, Suissa S. (2007) Pharmacoepidemiology. In: Ahrens W, Pigeot I., editor. Handbook of Epidemiology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 1250–1251.

11. Law MR, Thompson SG (1991) Low serum cholesterol and the risk of cancer: an analysis of the published prospective studies. Cancer Causes Control 2: 253–261. 1831389

12. Kreger BE, Anderson KM, Schatzkin A, Splansky GL (1992) Serum cholesterol level, body mass index, and the risk of colon cancer. The Framingham Study. Cancer 70: 1038–1043. 1515981

13. van Duijnhoven FJ, Bueno-De-Mesquita HB, Calligaro M, Jenab M, Pischon T, et al. (2011) Blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Gut 60: 1094–1102. doi: 10.1136/gut.2010.225011 21383385

14. Chisholm J (1990) The Read clinical classification. BMJ 300: 1092. 2344534

15. Bourke A, Dattani H, Robinson M (2004) Feasibility study and methodology to create a quality-evaluated database of primary care data. Inform Prim Care 12: 171–177. 15606990

16. Lewis JD, Schinnar R, Bilker WB, Wang X, Strom BL (2007) Validation studies of the health improvement network (THIN) database for pharmacoepidemiology research. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16: 393–401. 17066486

17. Haynes K, Forde KA, Schinnar R, Wong P, Strom BL, et al. (2009) Cancer incidence in The Health Improvement Network. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18: 730–736. doi: 10.1002/pds.1774 19479713

18. Garcia-Rodriguez LA, Huerta-Alvarez C (2001) Reduced risk of colorectal cancer among long-term users of aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Epidemiology 12: 88–93. 11138826

19. Lewis JD, Bilker WB, Weinstein RB, Strom BL (2005) The relationship between time since registration and measured incidence rates in the General Practice Research Database. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14: 443–451. 15898131

20. Lubin JH, Gail MH (1984) Biased selection of controls for case-control analyses of cohort studies. Biometrics 40: 63–75. 6375751

21. Essebag V, Platt RW, Abrahamowicz M, Pilote L (2005) Comparison of nested case-control and survival analysis methodologies for analysis of time-dependent exposure. BMC Med Res Methodol 5: 5. 15670334

22. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2014) Lipid modification: cardiovascular risk assessment and the modification of blood lipids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CG181).

23. Bosco JL, Silliman RA, Thwin SS, Geiger AM, Buist DS, et al. (2010) A most stubborn bias: no adjustment method fully resolves confounding by indication in observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol 63: 64–74. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.03.001 19457638

24. Yoshida K, Solomon DH, Kim SC (2015) Active-comparator design and new-user design in observational studies. Nat Rev Rheumatol 11:437–41. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2015.30 25800216

25. Suissa S, Azoulay L (2012) Metformin and the risk of cancer: time-related biases in observational studies. Diabetes Care 35: 2665–2673. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0788 23173135

26. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists C, Emberson JR, Kearney PM, Blackwell L, Newman C, et al. (2012) Lack of effect of lowering LDL cholesterol on cancer: meta-analysis of individual data from 175,000 people in 27 randomised trials of statin therapy. PLoS ONE 7: e29849. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029849 22276132

27. Muldoon MF, Marsland A, Flory JD, Rabin BS, Whiteside TL, et al. (1997) Immune system differences in men with hypo- or hypercholesterolemia. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 84: 145–149. 9245545

28. Gabitova L, Gorin A, Astsaturov I (2014) Molecular pathways: sterols and receptor signaling in cancer. Clin Cancer Res 20: 28–34. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0122 24158702

29. Alsheikh-Ali AA, Trikalinos TA, Kent DM, Karas RH (2008) Statins, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and risk of cancer. J Am Coll Cardiol 52: 1141–1147. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.06.037 18804740

30. Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE, et al. (1994) A prospective study of family history and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 331: 1669–1674. 7969357

31. Qaseem A, Denberg TD, Hopkins RH Jr., Humphrey LL, Levine J, et al. (2012) Screening for colorectal cancer: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 156: 378–386. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-156-5-201203060-00010 22393133

32. Sargent D, Sobrero A, Grothey A, O'Connell MJ, Buyse M, et al. (2009) Evidence for cure by adjuvant therapy in colon cancer: observations based on individual patient data from 20,898 patients on 18 randomized trials. J Clin Oncol 27: 872–877. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.19.5362 19124803

33. Maddox TM, Borden WB, Tang F, Virani SS, Oetgen WJ, et al. (2014) Implications of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines for adults in contemporary cardiovascular practice: insights from the NCDR PINNACLE registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 64: 2183–2192. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.08.041 25447259

34. Ioannidis JP (2014) More than a billion people taking statins?: Potential implications of the new cardiovascular guidelines. JAMA 311: 463–464. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.284657 24296612

35. Altman DG, Royston P (2006) The cost of dichotomising continuous variables. BMJ 332: 1080. 16675816

36. Health Survey for England. Health and Social Care Information Centre (2014) http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB16988/obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2015.pdf)

37. The NHS Information Centre Prescribing and Primary Care Services (2011) Prescribing compliance: a review of the proportion of prescriptions dispensed. http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB01500/pres-comp-rev-prop-pres-disp-rep.pdf.

38. Fearon ER, Vogelstein B (1990) A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell 61: 759–767. 2188735

39. Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabate J, Fan J, Sveen L, et al. (2015) Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers. JAMA Intern Med 175: 767–776. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.59 25751512

40. Slattery ML, Edwards S, Curtin K, Ma K, Edwards R, et al. (2003) Physical activity and colorectal cancer. Am J Epidemiol 158: 214–224. 12882943

Štítky
Interné lekárstvo

Článok vyšiel v časopise

PLOS Medicine


2016 Číslo 4

Najčítanejšie v tomto čísle
Kurzy

Zvýšte si kvalifikáciu online z pohodlia domova

Eozinofilní granulomatóza s polyangiitidou
nový kurz

Betablokátory a Ca antagonisté z jiného úhlu
Autori: prof. MUDr. Michal Vrablík, Ph.D., MUDr. Petr Janský

Autori: doc. MUDr. Petr Čáp, Ph.D.

Farmakoterapie akutní a chronické bolesti

Získaná hemofilie - Povědomí o nemoci a její diagnostika

Všetky kurzy
Prihlásenie
Zabudnuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa

Zabudnuté heslo

Zadajte e-mailovú adresu, s ktorou ste vytvárali účet. Budú Vám na ňu zasielané informácie k nastaveniu nového hesla.

Prihlásenie

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa