The association of depression with subsequent dementia diagnosis: A Swedish nationwide cohort study from 1964 to 2016


Autoři: Sofie Holmquist aff001;  Anna Nordström aff001;  Peter Nordström aff004
Působiště autorů: Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden aff001;  Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden aff002;  Department of Community Medicine, Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway aff003;  Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: The association of depression with subsequent dementia diagnosis: A Swedish nationwide cohort study from 1964 to 2016. PLoS Med 17(1): e1003016. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003016
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003016

Souhrn

Background

Depression is associated with an increased risk of dementia. However, short follow-up times and lack of adjustment for familial factors in previous studies could influence this association. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between depression and subsequent dementia, while controlling for familial factors and with a follow-up of over 35 years.

Methods and findings

Two cohorts were formed from all individuals aged 50 years or older living in Sweden as of 31 December 2005 (n = 3,341,010). The Swedish National Patient Register was searched from 1964 through 2016 to identify diagnosis of depression and dementia. In the first cohort, individuals diagnosed with depression (n = 119,386) were matched 1:1 with controls without depression diagnosis. The second cohort was a sibling cohort (n = 50,644) consisting of same-sex full sibling pairs with discordant depression status. In the population matched cohort study, a total of 9,802 individuals were diagnosed with dementia during a mean follow-up time of 10.41 (range 0–35) years (5.5% of those diagnosed with depression and 2.6% of those without depression diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.47, 95% CI 2.35–2.58; p < 0.001), with a stronger association for vascular dementia (aOR 2.68, 95% CI 2.44–2.95; p < 0.001) than for Alzheimer disease (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.68–1.92; p < 0.001). The association with dementia diagnosis was strongest in the first 6 months after depression diagnosis (aOR 15.20, 95% CI 11.85–19.50; p < 0.001), then decreased rapidly but persisted over follow-up of more than 20 years (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27–1.98; p < 0.001). Also in the sibling cohort, the association was strongest in the first 6 months (aOR 20.85, 95% CI 9.63–45.12; p < 0.001), then decreased rapidly but persisted over follow-up of more than 20 years (aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.32–4.11; p < 0.001). The adjusted models included sex, age at baseline, citizenship, civil status, household income, and diagnoses at baseline. The main limitation of the study methodology is the use of observational data; hence, the associations found are not proof of causal effects.

Conclusions

Depression is associated with increased odds of dementia, even more than 20 years after diagnosis of depression, and the association remains after adjustment for familial factors. Further research is needed to investigate whether successful prevention and treatment of depression decrease the risk of dementia.

Klíčová slova:

Alzheimer's disease – Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and management – Dementia – Depression – Diabetes mellitus – Intoxication – Swedish people – Vascular dementia


Zdroje

1. Fiest KM, Jette N, Roberts JI, Maxwell CJ, Smith EE, Black SE, et al. The prevalence and incidence of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2016;43(Suppl 1):S3–50. doi: 10.1017/cjn.2016.18 27307127

2. World Health Organization, Alzheimer’s Disease International. Dementia: a public health priority. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012 [cited 2019 Dec 13]. https://www.who.int/mental_health/publications/dementia_report_2012/en/.

3. Salomone S, Caraci F, Leggio GM, Fedotova J, Drago F. New pharmacological strategies for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: focus on disease modifying drugs. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;73(4):504–17. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.04134.x 22035455

4. Norton S, Matthews FE, Barnes DE, Yaffe K, Brayne C. Potential for primary prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: an analysis of population-based data. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(8):788–94. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70136-X 25030513

5. Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, Solomon A, Levalahti E, Ahtiluoto S, Antikainen R, et al. A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;385(9984):2255–63. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60461-5 25771249

6. Moll van Charante EP, Richard E, Eurelings LS, van Dalen JW, Ligthart SA, van Bussel EF, et al. Effectiveness of a 6-year multidomain vascular care intervention to prevent dementia (preDIVA): a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;388(10046):797–805. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30950-3 27474376

7. Cherbuin N, Kim S, Anstey KJ. Dementia risk estimates associated with measures of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2015;5(12):e008853. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008853 26692556

8. Diniz BS, Butters MA, Albert SM, Dew MA, Reynolds CF 3rd. Late-life depression and risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based cohort studies. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202(5):329–35. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.118307 23637108

9. Jorm AF. History of depression as a risk factor for dementia: an updated review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2001;35(6):776–81. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00967.x 11990888

10. Ownby RL, Crocco E, Acevedo A, John V, Loewenstein D. Depression and risk for Alzheimer disease: systematic review, meta-analysis, and metaregression analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(5):530–8. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.63.5.530 16651510

11. Bennett S, Thomas AJ. Depression and dementia: cause, consequence or coincidence? Maturitas. 2014;79(2):184–90. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.05.009 24931304

12. da Silva J, Goncalves-Pereira M, Xavier M, Mukaetova-Ladinska EB. Affective disorders and risk of developing dementia: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202(3):177–86. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.101931 23457181

13. Kessing LV. Depression and the risk for dementia. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2012;25(6):457–61. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e328356c368 22801361

14. Byers AL, Yaffe K. Depression and risk of developing dementia. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7(6):323–31. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2011.60 21537355

15. Green RC. Depression as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: the MIRAGE study. JAMA. 2003;290(6):727.

16. Brommelhoff JA, Gatz M, Johansson B, McArdle JJ, Fratiglioni L, Pedersen NL. Depression as a risk factor or prodromal feature for dementia? Findings in a population-based sample of Swedish twins. Psychol Aging. 2009;24(2):373–84. doi: 10.1037/a0015713 19485655

17. Singh-Manoux A, Dugravot A, Fournier A, Abell J, Ebmeier K, Kivimaki M, et al. Trajectories of depressive symptoms before diagnosis of dementia: a 28-year follow-up study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74(7):712–8. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0660 28514478

18. Almeida OP, Hankey GJ, Yeap BB, Golledge J, Flicker L. Depression as a modifiable factor to decrease the risk of dementia. Transl Psychiatry. 2017;7(5):e1117. doi: 10.1038/tp.2017.90 28463236

19. Gracia-Garcia P, de-la-Camara C, Santabarbara J, Lopez-Anton R, Quintanilla MA, Ventura T, et al. Depression and incident Alzheimer disease: the impact of disease severity. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;23(2):119–29. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2013.02.011 23791538

20. Kessing LV, Andersen PK. Does the risk of developing dementia increase with the number of episodes in patients with depressive disorder and in patients with bipolar disorder? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75(12):1662–6. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2003.031773 15548477

21. Barnes DE, Yaffe K, Byers AL, McCormick M, Schaefer C, Whitmer RA. Midlife vs late-life depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: differential effects for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(5):493–8. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1481 22566581

22. Kessing LV, Olsen EW, Mortensen PB, Andersen PK. Dementia in affective disorder: a case-register study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999;100(3):176–85. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1999.tb10843.x 10493083

23. Breslau J, Gilman SE, Stein BD, Ruder T, Gmelin T, Miller E. Sex differences in recent first-onset depression in an epidemiological sample of adolescents. Transl Psychiatry. 2017;7(5):e1139. doi: 10.1038/tp.2017.105 28556831

24. Picco L, Subramaniam M, Abdin E, Vaingankar JA, Chong SA. Gender differences in major depressive disorder: findings from the Singapore Mental Health Study. Singapore Med J. 2017;58(11):649–55. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2016144 27526704

25. Maier W, Gansicke M, Gater R, Rezaki M, Tiemens B, Urzua RF. Gender differences in the prevalence of depression: a survey in primary care. J Affect Disord. 1999;53(3):241–52. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(98)00131-1 10404710

26. Mazure CM, Swendsen J. Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(5):451–2. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(16)00067-3 26987699

27. Podcasy JL, Epperson CN. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2016;18(4):437–46. 28179815

28. Shadrina M, Bondarenko EA, Slominsky PA. Genetics factors in major depression disease. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:334. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00334 30083112

29. Sullivan PF, Neale MC, Kendler KS. Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(10):1552–62. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1552 11007705

30. Slooter AJ, Cruts M, Kalmijn S, Hofman A, Breteler MM, Van Broeckhoven C, et al. Risk estimates of dementia by apolipoprotein E genotypes from a population-based incidence study: the Rotterdam Study. Arch Neurol. 1998;55(7):964–8. doi: 10.1001/archneur.55.7.964 9678314

31. Loy CT, Schofield PR, Turner AM, Kwok JB. Genetics of dementia. Lancet. 2014;383(9919):828–40. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60630-3 23927914

32. Nordstrom A, Nordstrom P. Traumatic brain injury and the risk of dementia diagnosis: a nationwide cohort study. PLoS Med. 2018;15(1):e1002496. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002496 29381704

33. Ludvigsson JF, Andersson E, Ekbom A, Feychting M, Kim JL, Reuterwall C, et al. External review and validation of the Swedish national inpatient register. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:450. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-450 21658213

34. Royston P, Parmar MKB. Flexible parametric proportional-hazards and proportional-odds models for censored survival data, with application to prognostic modelling and estimation of treatment effects. Stat Med. 2002;21(15):2175–97. doi: 10.1002/sim.1203 12210632

35. Mourao RJ, Mansur G, Malloy-Diniz LF, Costa EC, Diniz BS. Depressive symptoms increase the risk of progression to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;31(8):905–11. doi: 10.1002/gps.4406 26680599

36. Steffens DC, Plassman BL, Helms MJ, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Saunders AM, Breitner JCS. A twin study of late-onset depression and apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1997;41(8):851–6. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(96)00247-8 9099411

37. Hansson GK. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(16):1685–95. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra043430 15843671

38. Setiawan E, Wilson AA, Mizrahi R, Rusjan PM, Miler L, Rajkowska G, et al. Role of translocator protein density, a marker of neuroinflammation, in the brain during major depressive episodes. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(3):268–75. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2427 25629589

39. Steffens DC, Potter GG, McQuoid DR, MacFall JR, Payne ME, Burke JR, et al. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging vascular changes, apolipoprotein E genotype, and development of dementia in the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;15(10):839–49. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e318048a1a0 17623814

40. Birrer RB, Vemuri SP. Depression in later life: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(10):2375–82. 15168957

41. Langa KM, Larson EB, Crimmins EM, et al. A comparison of the prevalence of dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(1):51–8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.6807 27893041

Štítky
Interné lekárstvo

Článok vyšiel v časopise

PLOS Medicine


2020 Číslo 1

Najčítanejšie v tomto čísle

Tejto téme sa ďalej venujú…


Kurzy

Zvýšte si kvalifikáciu online z pohodlia domova

nový kurz
Autori: MUDr. Petr Výborný, CSc., FEBO

Autori: MUDr. Jiří Horažďovský, Ph.D

Zánětlivá bolest zad a axiální spondylartritida – Diagnostika a referenční strategie
Autori: MUDr. Monika Gregová, Ph.D., MUDr. Kristýna Bubová

Krvácení v důsledku portální hypertenze při jaterní cirhóze – od pohledu záchranné služby až po závěrečný hepato-gastroenterologický pohled
Autori: PhDr. Petr Jaššo, MBA, MUDr. Hynek Fiala, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Radan Brůha, CSc., MUDr. Tomáš Fejfar, Ph.D., MUDr. David Astapenko, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Vladimír Černý, Ph.D.

Rozšíření možností lokální terapie atopické dermatitidy v ordinaci praktického lékaře či alergologa
Autori: MUDr. Nina Benáková, Ph.D.

Všetky kurzy
Prihlásenie
Zabudnuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa

Zabudnuté heslo

Zadajte e-mailovú adresu, s ktorou ste vytvárali účet. Budú Vám na ňu zasielané informácie k nastaveniu nového hesla.

Prihlásenie

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa