Antenatal magnesium sulphate and adverse neonatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Autoři: Emily Shepherd aff001;  Rehana A. Salam aff001;  Deepak Manhas aff003;  Anne Synnes aff003;  Philippa Middleton aff001;  Maria Makrides aff002;  Caroline A. Crowther aff001
Působiště autorů: Robinson Research Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia aff001;  South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia aff002;  University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada aff003;  Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: Antenatal magnesium sulphate and adverse neonatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 16(12): e1002988. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002988
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002988



There is widespread, increasing use of magnesium sulphate in obstetric practice for pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and preterm fetal neuroprotection; benefit for preventing preterm labour and birth (tocolysis) is unproven. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antenatal magnesium sulphate is associated with unintended adverse neonatal outcomes.

Methods and findings

CINAHL, Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, Embase, TOXLINE, and Web of Science, were searched (inceptions to 3 September 2019). Randomised, quasi-randomised, and non-randomised trials, cohort and case–control studies, and case reports assessing antenatal magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, fetal neuroprotection, or tocolysis, compared with placebo/no treatment or a different magnesium sulphate regimen, were included. The primary outcome was perinatal death. Secondary outcomes included pre-specified and non-pre-specified adverse neonatal outcomes. Two reviewers screened 5,890 articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias following Cochrane Handbook and RTI Item Bank guidance. For randomised trials, pooled risk ratios (RRs) or mean differences, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were calculated using fixed- or random-effects meta-analysis. Non-randomised data were tabulated and narratively summarised. We included 197 studies (40 randomised trials, 138 non-randomised studies, and 19 case reports), of mixed quality. The 40 trials (randomising 19,265 women and their babies) were conducted from 1987 to 2018 across high- (16 trials) and low/middle-income countries (23 trials) (1 mixed). Indications included pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (24 trials), fetal neuroprotection (7 trials), and tocolysis (9 trials); 18 trials compared magnesium sulphate with placebo/no treatment, and 22 compared different regimens. For perinatal death, no clear difference in randomised trials was observed between magnesium sulphate and placebo/no treatment (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.10; 8 trials, 13,654 babies), nor between regimens. Eleven of 138 non-randomised studies reported on perinatal death. Only 1 cohort (127 babies; moderate to high risk of bias) observed an increased risk of perinatal death with >48 versus ≤48 grams magnesium sulphate exposure for tocolysis. No clear secondary adverse neonatal outcomes were observed in randomised trials, and a very limited number of possible adverse outcomes warranting further consideration were identified in non-randomised studies. Where non-randomised studies observed possible harms, often no or few confounders were controlled for (moderate to high risk of bias), samples were small (200 babies or fewer), and/or results were from subgroup analyses. Limitations include missing data for important outcomes across most studies, heterogeneity of included studies, and inclusion of published data only.


Our findings do not support clear associations between antenatal magnesium sulphate for beneficial indications and adverse neonatal outcomes. Further large, high-quality studies (prospective cohorts or individual participant data meta-analyses) assessing specific outcomes, or the impact of regimen, pregnancy, or birth characteristics on these outcomes, would further inform safety recommendations. PROSPERO: CRD42013004451.

Klíčová slova:

Fetal death – Magnesium – Neonatal care – Neonates – Preeclampsia – Quality of life – Stillbirths – Sulfates


1. Duley L, Gülmezoglu AM, Henderson‐Smart DJ, Chou D. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre‐eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(11):CD000025. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000025.pub2 21069663

2. Duley L, Matar HE, Almerie MQ, Hall DR. Alternative magnesium sulphate regimens for women with pre‐eclampsia and eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(8):CD007388. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007388.pub2 20687086

3. World Health Organization. WHO recommendations for prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.

4. Doyle LW, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Marret S, Rouse D. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1):CD004661. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004661.pub3 19160238

5. Jayaram PM, Mohan MK, Farid I, Lindow S. Antenatal magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection: a critical appraisal and systematic review of clinical practice guidelines. J Perinat Med. 2019;47(3):262–9. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2018-0174 30352042

6. Medley N, Poljak B, Mammarella S, Alfirevic Z. Clinical guidelines for prevention and management of preterm birth: a systematic review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;125(11):1361–9.

7. World Health Organization. WHO recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.

8. Elliott JP, Morrison JC, Bofill JA. Risks and benefits of magnesium sulfate tocolysis in preterm labor (PTL). AIMS Public Health. 2016;3(2):348–56. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2016.2.348 29546168

9. Crowther CA, Brown J, McKinlay CJD, Middleton P. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(8):CD001060. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001060.pub2 25126773

10. Hutchinson HT, Nichols MM, Kuhn CR, Vasicka A. Effects of magnesium sulfate on uterine contractility, intrauterine fetus, and infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1964;88:747–58. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(64)90608-8 14130338

11. Tsang RC. Neonatal magnesium disturbances. Am J Dis Child. 1972;124(2):282–93. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.1972.02110140132019 4559534

12. Van Laecke S. Hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia. Acta Clin Belg. 2019;74(1):41–7. doi: 10.1080/17843286.2018.1516173 30220246

13. Bain ES, Middleton PF, Crowther CA. Maternal adverse effects of different antenatal magnesium sulphate regimens for improving maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:195. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-195 24139447

14. Nensi A, De Silva DA, von Dadelszen P, Sawchuck D, Synnes AR, Crane J, et al. Effect of magnesium sulphate on fetal heart rate parameters: a systematic review. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014;36(12):1055–64. doi: 10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30382-0 25668040

15. Loke YK, Golder SP, Vandenbroucke JP. Comprehensive evaluations of the adverse effects of drugs: importance of appropriate study selection and data sources. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2011;2(2):59–68. doi: 10.1177/2042098611401129 25083202

16. Loke YK, Price D, Herxheimer A. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2007;7:32. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-7-32 17615054

17. Zorzela L, Loke YK, Ioannidis JP, Golder S, Santaguida P, Altman DG, et al. PRISMA harms checklist: improving harms reporting in systematic reviews. BMJ. 2016;352:i157. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i157 26830668

18. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. PROSPERO: international prospective register of systematic reviews. York: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; 2019 [cited 2019 May 3].

19. Higgins J, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). Cochrane Collaboration; 2011 [cited 2019 Nov 11].

20. Viswanathan M, Berkman ND, Dryden DM, Hartling L. Assessing risk of bias and confounding in observational studies of interventions or exposures: further development of the RTI Item Bank. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2013 Aug.

21. Nordic Cochrane Centre. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.3. Copenhagen: Nordic Cochrane Centre; 2014.

22. Abdul M, Nasir U, Khan N, Yusuf M. Low-dose magnesium sulphate in the control of eclamptic fits: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013;287(1):43–6. doi: 10.1007/s00404-012-2523-z 22930148

23. Agrawal S, Das V, Verma V, Agarwal A, Pandey A, Jain V. Evaluation of medium dose versus standard Pritchard regime of magnesium sulfate in the management of eclampsia in developing nation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015;131(Suppl 5):E183.

24. Bain E, Middleton P, Yelland L, Ashwood P, Crowther C. Maternal adverse effects with different loading infusion rates of antenatal magnesium sulphate for preterm fetal neuroprotection: the IRIS randomised trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;121(5):595–603.

25. Begum M, Begum A, Quardir E. Loading dose versus standard regime of magnesium sulfate in the management of eclampsia: a randomized trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2002;28(3):154–9. doi: 10.1046/j.1341-8076.2002.00029.x 12214831

26. Behrad B, Moossavifar N, Motahedzadeh M, Esmaili H, Moghtadeii P. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of high and low doses of magnesium sulfate for acute tocolysis. Acta Med Iran. 2003;41(2):126–31.

27. Bhattacharjee N, Saha S, Ganguly R, Patra K, Shali B, Das N, et al. A randomised comparative study between low-dose intravenous magnesium sulphate and standard intramuscular regimen for the treatment of eclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;31(4):298–303. doi: 10.3109/01443615.2010.549972 21534749

28. Blackwell S, Hallak M, Hassan S, Berry S, Russell E, Sorokin Y. The effects of intrapartum magnesium sulfate therapy on fetal serum interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α at delivery: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184(7):1320–4. doi: 10.1067/mob.2001.115745 11408847

29. Chama C, Geidam A, Bako B, Mairiga A, Atterwahmie A. A shortened versus standard matched postpartum magnesium sulphate regimen in the treatment of eclampsia: a randomised controlled trial. Afr J Reprod Health. 2013; 17(3):131–6. 24069775

30. Chen F-P, Chang S-D, Chu K-K. Expectant management in severe preeclampsia: does magnesium sulfate prevent the development of eclampsia? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1995;74(3):182–5.

31. Chissell S, Botha J, Moodley J, McFadyen L. Intravenous and intramuscular magnesium sulphate regimens in severe pre-eclampsia. S Afr Med J. 1994;84(9):607–10. 7839282

32. Coetzee E, Dommisse J, Anthony J. A randomised controlled trial of intravenous magnesium sulphate versus placebo in the management of women with severe pre-eclampsia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105(3):300–3. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1998.tb10090.x 9532990

33. Colon I, Berletti M, Garabedian M, Wilcox N, Williams K, Chueh J, et al. Randomized, double-blinded trial of magnesium sulfate tocolysis vs intravenous normal saline for nonsevere placental abruption. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212(1 Suppl):S388–9.

34. Cotton D, Strassner H, Hill L, Schifrin B, Paul R. Comparison of magnesium sulfate, terbutaline and a placebo for inhibition of preterm labor. A randomized study. J Reprod Med. 1984;29(2):92–7. 6708033

35. Cox S, Sherman L, Leveno K. Randomized investigation of magnesium sulfate for prevention of preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163(3):767–72. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(90)91065-k 2206069

36. Crowther C, Hiller J, Doyle L, Haslam R, Australasian Collaborative Trial of Magnesium Sulphate (ACTOMgSO4) Collaborative Group. Effect of magnesium sulfate given for neuroprotection before preterm birth. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290(20):2669–76. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.20.2669 14645308

37. Easterling T, Hebert M, Bracken H, Darwish E, Ramadan MC, Shaarawy S, et al. A randomized trial comparing the pharmacology of magnesium sulfate when used to treat severe preeclampsia with serial intravenous boluses versus a continuous intravenous infusion. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):290. doi: 10.1186/s12884-018-1919-6 29976161

38. Fox M, Allbert J, McCaul J, Martin R, McLaughlin B, Morrison J. Neonatal morbidity between 34 and 37 weeks’ gestation. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1993;49(4):242–3.

39. Magpie Trial Collaborative Group. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359(1):1877–90.

40. How HY C C, Cook VD, Miles DE, Spinnato JA. Preterm premature rupture of membranes: aggressive tocolysis versus expectant management. J Matern Fetal Med. 1998;7(1):8–12. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6661(199801/02)7:1<8::AID-MFM2>3.0.CO;2-S 9502662

41. Keepanasseril A, Maurya DK, Manikandan K, Suriya YJ, Habeebullah S, Raghavan SS. Prophylactic magnesium sulphate in prevention of eclampsia in women with severe preeclampsia: randomised controlled trial (PIPES trial). J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;38(3):305–9. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1351931 28974124

42. Lewis DF, Bergstedt S, Edwards MS, Burlison S, Gallaspy JW, Brooks GG, Adair CD. Successful magnesium sulfate tocolysis: is “weaning” the drug necessary? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;177(4):742–5. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9378(97)70261-8 9369812

43. Livingston J, Livingston L, Ramsey R, Mabie B, Sibai B. Magnesium sulfate in women with mild preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(2):217–20. doi: 10.1016/s0029-7844(02)03053-3 12576241

44. Malapaka S, Ballal P. Low-dose magnesium sulfate versus Pritchard regimen for the treatment of eclampsia and imminent eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115(1):70–2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2011.05.013 21798536

45. Marret S, Marpeau L, Zupan-Simunek V, Eurin D, Leveque C, Hellot M-F, et al. Magnesium sulphate given before very-preterm birth to protect infant brain: the randomised controlled PREMAG trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;114(3):310–8.

46. Mirzamoradi M, Behnam M, Jahed T, Saleh-Gargari S. Does magnesium sulfate delay the active phase of labor in women with premature rupture of membranes? A randomized controlled trial. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;53(3):309–12. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2013.06.014 25286782

47. Mittendorf R, Dambrosia J, Pryde P, Lee K-S, Gianopoulois J, Besinger R, et al. Association between the use of antenatal magnesium sulfate in preterm labor and adverse health outcomes in infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(6):1111–8. doi: 10.1067/mob.2002.123544 12066082

48. Moodley J, Moodley V. Prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy in hypertensive crises of pregnancy—the need for a large, randomized trial. Hypertens Pregnancy. 1994;13(3):245–52.

49. Mundle S, Regi A, Easterling T, Biswas B, Bracken H, Khedekar V, et al. Treatment approaches for preeclampsia in low-resource settings: a randomized trial of the Springfusor pump for delivery of magnesium sulfate. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2012;2(1):32–8. doi: 10.1016/j.preghy.2011.09.002 26104987

50. Orji E, Ogoke G, Fasubaa O. Efficacy of a single loading dose of magnesium sulphate versus the standard Pritchard regimen in the management of severe preeclampsia in an African population. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;119(S3):S447.

51. Parashi S, Bordbar A, Mahmoodi Y, Jafari M. The survey of magnesium sulfate in prevention of intraventricular haemorrhage in premature infants: a randomized clinical trial. Shiraz E Med J. 2017;18(11):e55094.

52. Pascoal ACF, Katz L, Pinto MH, Santos CA, Braga LCO, Maia SB, et al. Serum magnesium levels during magnesium sulfate infusion at 1 gram/hour versus 2 grams/hour as a maintenance dose to prevent eclampsia in women with severe preeclampsia: a randomized clinical trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(32):e16779.

53. Rimal S, Rijal P, Bhatt R, Thapa K. Loading dose only versus standard dose magnesium sulfate seizure prophylaxis in severe pre-eclamptic women. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2017;56(208):388–94.

54. Rouse D, Hirtz D, Thom E, Varner M, Spong C, Mercer B, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(9):895–905. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0801187 18753646

55. Saha P, Kaur J, Goel P, Kataria S, Tandon R, Saha L. Safety and efficacy of low dose intramuscular magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) compared to intravenous regimen for treatment of eclampsia J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2017;4(10):1543–9.

56. Shilva, Saha S, Kalra J, Prasad R. Safety and efficacy of low-dose MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;97(2):150–1. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2007.01.008 17368649

57. Shreya M, Krishna L, Shailaja N, Bhat B. Evaluation of single dose magnesium sulphate and Pritchard regimen in the treatment of eclampsia—a comparative study. Biomedicine. 2014;34(2):252–6.

58. Singh S, Behera A. Eclampsia in Eastern India: incidence, demographic profile and response to three different anticonvulsant regimes of magnesium sulphate. Internet J Gynecol Obstet. 2011;15(2):1–7.

59. Tangmanowutthikul S, Champawong R, Songthamwat S, Songthamwat M. Comparison of magnesium sulphate protocols by weight-adjusted versus two grams per hour for preventing convulsion in preeclampsia: a randomised controlled trial. J Clin Diagn Res. 2019;13(2):QC01–4.

60. Terrone D, Rinehart B, Kimmel E, May W, Larmon J, Morrison J. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of high and low maintenance doses of magnesium sulfate for acute tocolysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182(6):1477–82. doi: 10.1067/mob.2000.107334 10871468

61. Wiltlin A, Friedman S, Sibai B. The effect of magnesium sulfate therapy on the duration of labor in women with mild preeclampsia at term: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;176(3):623–7. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9378(97)70558-1 9077617

62. Adama-Hondegla AB, Lawson-Evi K, Bassowa A, Modji S, Egbla KF, Akpadza K. Perinatal mortality risk factors of infants bom from eclamptic mothers at Tokoin Teaching Hospital of Lome. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;13(5):391–5.

63. Alexander JM, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ, Cunningham FG. Selective magnesium sulfate prophylaxis for the prevention of eclampsia in women with gestational hypertension. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108(4):826–32. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000235721.88349.80 17012442

64. Alston MJ, Alexandrovic K, Stiglich N, Metz TD. Discontinuation of tocolytics for preterm labor in an academic safety net hospital: impact on the duration of betamethasone exposure. J Reprod Med. 2016;61(2):109–13.

65. Ambadkar A, Prasad M, Chauhan AR. Neonatal effects of maternal magnesium sulphate in late preterm and term pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2019;69(1):25–30. doi: 10.1007/s13224-017-1074-4 30814806

66. Bajaj M, Natarajan G, Shankaran S, Wyckoff M, Laptook AR, Bell EF, et al. Delivery room resuscitation and short-term outcomes in moderately preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2018;195:33–8e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.11.039 29306493

67. Basu SK, Chickajajur V, Lopez V, Bhutada A, Pagala M, Rastogi S. Immediate clinical outcomes in preterm neonates receiving antenatal magnesium for neuroprotection. J Perinat Med. 2012;40(2):185–9.

68. Belden MK, Gnadt S, Ebert A. Effects of maternal magnesium sulfate treatment on neonatal feeding tolerance. J Pediatri Pharmacol Ther. 2017;22(2):112–7.

69. Bertello Grecco M, Barrón B, Rigo D, McCormick Cook A, Pajón Scocco J, Novoa P, et al. Maternal and neonatal safety with the use of magnesium sulfate in preeclampsia. Kidney Int Rep. 2019;4(7):S146.

70. Black B, Holditch-Davis D, Schwartz T, Scher MS. Effects of antenatal magnesium sulfate and corticosteroid therapy on sleep states of preterm infants. Res Nurs Health. 2006;29(4):269–80. doi: 10.1002/nur.20141 16847907

71. Blackwell SC, Redman ME, Whitty JE, Refuerzo JS, Berry SM, Sorokin Y, et al. The effect of intrapartum magnesium sulfate therapy on fetal cardiac troponin I levels at delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;12(5):327–31. doi: 10.1080/jmf.12.5.327.331 12607765

72. Bonta BW, Chin TK, DeVoe WM. Maternal intravenous MgSO4 administration and its effects on neonatal respiratory function and risk of development of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus shunts during the initial 72 hours of life. J Investig Med. 2000;48(1):107A.

73. Boyle A, Greer K, Caballero A, Norton T, Kate P, Ferguson J, et al. Neonatal outcomes in obese women undergoing cesarean delivery for fetal heart rate tracing abnormalities. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;218(1):S335.

74. Bozkurt O, Eras Z, Canpolat FE, Oguz SS, Uras N, Dilmen U. Antenatal magnesium sulfate and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants born to preeclamptic mothers. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;29(7):1101–4. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1035641 25893546

75. Brazy JE, Grimm JK, Little VA. Neonatal manifestations of severe maternal hypertension occurring before the thirty-sixth week of pregnancy. J Pediatr. 1982;100(2):265–71. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(82)80653-7 7057337

76. Brookfield K, Su F, Drover D, Adelus M, Lyell D, Carvalho B. Umbilical cord magnesium levels and neonatal resuscitation in infants exposed to magnesium sulfate. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212(1 Suppl):S395–6.

77. Brookfield K, O’Malley K, Yeaton-Massey A, Butwick A. Does magnesium sulfate exposure attenuate the effete of steroids administered for fetal lung maturation? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;1(Suppl):S89.

78. Brown BE, Vincer M, Acott P, El-Naggar W, O’Connell C, Kajetanowicz A. Systemic hypertension in preterm infants—a population-based study. Paediatr Child Health. 2019;24(Suppl 2):e47–8.

79. Canterino JC, Verma UL, Visintainer PF, Figueroa R, Klein SA, Tejani NA. Maternal magnesium sulfate and the development of neonatal periventricular leucomalacia and intraventricular hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93(3):396–402. doi: 10.1016/s0029-7844(98)00455-4 10074987

80. Cawyer CR. The association of magnesium sulfate with maternal morbidity when used for preeclampsia without severe features. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019;220(1):S292–3.

81. Cho GJ, Lee JE, Hong HR, Hong SC, Hong YS, Kim HJ, et al. Maternal magnesium sulfate treatment is not associated with serum calcium levels of preterm neonate. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;210(1 Suppl):S356.

82. Chowdhury JR, Chaudhuri S, Bhattacharyya N, Biswas PK, Panpalia M. Comparison of intramuscular magnesium sulfate with low dose intravenous magnesium sulfate regimen for treatment of eclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009;35(1):119–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2008.00842.x 19215558

83. Chun E-H, Do S-H, Shin H-J, Na H-S, Hwang J-W. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the labor duration and neonatal outcome in parturients with preeclampsia. Anesth Pain Med. 2014;9(2):128–33.

84. Cuff RD, Sullivan SA, Chang EY. Impact of dosing schedule on uptake of neuroprotective magnesium sulfate. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 Sep 19. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1513482 30122071

85. Das M, Chaudhuri PR, Mondal BC, Mitra S, Bandyopadhyay D, Pramanik S. Assessment of serum magnesium levels and its outcome in neonates of eclamptic mothers treated with low-dose magnesium sulfate regimen. Indian J Pharmacol. 2015;47(5):502–8. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.165183 26600638

86. De Jesus L, Sood B, Shankaran S, Kendrick D, Das A, Bell E, et al. Antenatal magnesium sulfate exposure and acute cardiorespiratory events in preterm infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212(1):94.e1–7.

87. De Silva D, Synnes A, von Dadelszen P, Lee T, Bone J, Mag-CP, et al. MAGnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection to prevent Cerebral Palsy (MAG-CP)—implementation of a national guideline in Canada. Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s13012-017-0702-9 29325592

88. de Veciana M, Porto M, Major CA, Barke JI. Tocolysis in advanced preterm labor: impact on neonatal outcome. Am J Perinatol. 1995;12(4):294–8. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-994478 7575840

89. Deering SH, Stagg AR, Spong CY, Abubakar K, Pezzullo JC, Ghidini A. Antenatal magnesium treatment and neonatal illness severity as measured by the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP). J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005;17(2):151–5. doi: 10.1080/14767050500043145 16076625

90. del Moral T, Gonzalez-Quintero VH, Claure N, Vanbuskirk S, Bancalari E. Antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate and the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants. J Perinatol. 2007;27(3):154–7. doi: 10.1038/ 17314984

91. delValle GM, Bister GL, Lynch LA, Cummings JJ. Prenatal magnesium sulfate exposure and the incidence of cerebral palsy in very low birth weight infants. J Investig Med. 1998;46(1):175A.

92. Derks JB, Sol CM, Van Leeuwen J, Keunen K, Mulder EJ, De Vries LS, et al. Antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection reduces punctate white matter lesions at 30 weeks MRI in the human neonate. Reprod Sci. 2016;23(Suppl 1):273A.

93. Downey LC, Cotten CM, Hornik CP, Laughon MM, Tolia VN, Clark RH, et al. Association of in utero magnesium exposure and spontaneous intestinal perforations in extremely low birth weight infants. J Perinatol. 2017;37(6):641–4. doi: 10.1038/jp.2016.274 28125094

94. Drassinower D, Obican S, Levin H, Gyamfi-Bannerman C. Immediate neonatal outcomes in infants exposed to magnesium sulfate at the time of delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212(1 Suppl):S90.

95. Duffy CR, Odibo AO, Roehl KA, Macones GA, Cahill AG. Effect of magnesium sulfate on fetal heart rate patterns in the second stage of labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119(6):1129–36. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318257181e 22617576

96. Edwards J, Edwards L, Swamy G, Grotegut C. Magnesium sulfate for neuroprotection in the setting of chorioamnionitis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018;31(9):1156–60. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1311312 28395549

97. Elimian A, Verma R, Ogburn P, Wiencek V, Spitzer A, Quirk JG. Magnesium sulfate and neonatal outcomes of preterm neonates. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;12(2):118–22. doi: 10.1080/jmf. 12420842

98. Elliott J, Garite T, Clark R, Combs A. Perinatal effect of magnesium sulfate administered for tocolysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189(6 Suppl):S63.

99. Farkouh LJ, Thorp JA, Jones PG, Clark RH, Knox GE. Antenatal magnesium exposure and neonatal demise. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(4):869–72. doi: 10.1067/mob.2001.117362 11641668

100. FineSmith RB, Roche K, Yellin PB, Walsh KK, Shen C, Zeglis M, et al. Effect of magnesium sulfate on the development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants. Am J Perinatol. 1997;14(5):303–7. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-994149 9259949

101. Gano D, Ho ML, Partridge JC, Glass HC, Xu D, Barkovich AJ, et al. Antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate is associated with reduced cerebellar hemorrhage in preterm newborns. J Pediatr. 2016;178:68–74. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.06.053 27453378

102. Garcia Alonso L, Pumarada Priet M, Gonzalez Colmenero E, Concheiro Guisan A, Suarez Albo M, Duran Fernandez-Feijoo C, et al. Prenatal therapy with magnesium sulfate and its correlation with neonatal serum magnesium concentration. Am J Perinatol. 2018;35(2):170–6. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1606358 28854447

103. Gasparyan A. [Neurosonographical characteristics of dysmature infants depending on conducted neuroprotection.] Georgian Med News. 2017;(268–9):72–5.

104. Ghidini A, Espada RA, Spong CY. Does exposure to magnesium sulfate in utero decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001;80(2):126–9. 11167206

105. Gibbins KJ, Browning KR, Lopes VV, Anderson BL, Rouse DJ. Evaluation of the clinical use of magnesium sulfate for cerebral palsy prevention. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(2 Pt 1):235–40. doi: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e31827c5cf8 23344271

106. Girsen AI, Greenberg MB, El-Sayed YY, Lee H, Carvalho B, Lyell DJ. Magnesium sulfate exposure and neonatal intensive care unit admission at term. J Perinatol. 2015;35(3):181–5. doi: 10.1038/jp.2014.184 25321647

107. Gonzalez-Quintero VH, Tolaymat L, Claure N, Vanbuskirk S, Siman D, del Moral T, et al. Survival rate in neonates exposed to magnesium sulfate. J Perinat Med. 2001;29(Suppl 1):20.

108. Greenberg MB, Penn AA, Thomas LJ, El-Sayed YY, Caughey AB, Lyell DJ. Neonatal medical admission in a term and late-preterm cohort exposed to magnesium sulfate. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(6):515.e1–7.

109. Greenberg MB, Penn AA, Whitaker KR, Kogut EA, El-Sayed YY, Caughey AB, et al. Effect of magnesium sulfate exposure on term neonates. J Perinatol. 2013;33(3):188–93. doi: 10.1038/jp.2012.95 22836873

110. Grether JK, Hoogstrate J, Selvin S, Nelson KB. Magnesium sulfate tocolysis and risk of neonatal death. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178(1 Pt 1):1–6. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9378(98)70617-9 9465794

111. Grimbly C, Rosolowsky E, Aziz K, O’Reilly M, Cheung PY, Schmolzer G. New baby jitters: novel characterization of the incidence and risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia in the premature infant <33 weeks. Paediatr Child Health. 2015;20(5):e86.

112. Gulcan H, Gungor S, Tiker F, Kilicdag H. Effect of perinatal factors on time of first stool passage in preterm newborns: an open, prospective study. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2006;67(3):214–25. doi: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2006.06.002 24678097

113. Gursoy T, Imamoglu EY, Ovali F, Karatekin G. Effects of antenatal magnesium exposure on intestinal blood flow and outcome in preterm neonates. Am J Perinatol. 2015;32(11):1064–9. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1548541 25825964

114. Havranek T, Ashmeade TL, Afanador M, Carver JD. Effects of maternal magnesium sulfate administration on intestinal blood flow velocity in preterm neonates. Neonatology. 2011;100(1):44–9. doi: 10.1159/000319049 21212694

115. Hechtman J, Blackwell S, Moldenhauer J, Refuerzo J, Hassan S, Berry S, et al. Lack of association of neonatal mortality and exposure to tocolytic magnesium. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187(6 Suppl 1):S124.

116. Holcomb WL, Shackelford GD, Petrie RH. Magnesium tocolysis and neonatal bone abnormalities: a controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;78(4):611–4. 1923163

117. Hom K, Brar B, Kennel P, Jackson D. Magnesium for fetal neuroprotection: should it be started when delivery is not imminent in pprom? Obstet Gynecol. 2018;131(Suppl 1):44S.

118. Hong JY, Kim Y-M, Hong JY, Seo M-r, Chae J, Sung J-H, et al. Does antenatal magnesium sulfate exposure increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019;220(1):S327.

119. Igarashi H, Honma Y, Suwa K, Momoi M, Yanagisawa M. The clinical effects of hypermagnesemia on preterm infants of mothers treated with magnesium sulfate for tocolysis. Acta Neonatol Japon. 1995;31(2):388–93.

120. Imamoglu EY, Gursoy T, Karatekin G, Ovali F. Effects of antenatal magnesium sulfate treatment on cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm neonates. J Perinatol. 2014;34(3):192–6. doi: 10.1038/jp.2013.182 24480905

121. James AT, Corcoran JD, Hayes B, Franklin O, El-Khuffash A. The effect of antenatal magnesium sulfate on left ventricular afterload and myocardial function measured using deformation and rotational mechanics imaging. J Perinatol. 2015;35(11):913–8. doi: 10.1038/jp.2015.104 26291779

122. Jazayeri A, Jazayeri MK, Sutkin G. Tocolysis does not improve neonatal outcome in patients with preterm rupture of membranes. Am J Perinatol. 2003;20(4):189–93. doi: 10.1055/s-2003-40606 12874729

123. Jeanneteau P, Bouet PE, Baisson AL, Courtay V, Gascoin-Lachambre G, Gillard P, et al. Evaluation of the clinical use of magnesium sulfate for cerebral palsy prevention. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27(Suppl 1):377–8.

124. Jones CW, Petrashek K, Wenzlaff M, Simpson P, Pan AY. Prenatal magnesium sulfate and time to first stool in late preterm infants. Obstet Gynecol. 2018;131(Suppl 1):160S.

125. Jung EJ, Byun JM, Kim YN, Lee KB, Sung MS, Kim KT, et al. Antenatal magnesium sulfate for both tocolysis and fetal neuroprotection in premature rupture of the membranes before 32 weeks’ gestation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018;31(11):1431–41. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1317743 28391733

126. Kamilya G, Bharracharyya SK, Mukherji J. Changing trends in the management of eclampsia from a teaching hospital. J Indian Med Assoc. 2005;103(3):132,134–5.

127. Kamyar M, Bardsley T, Korgenski K, Clark E. Magnesium sulfate and the extremely low birth weight neonate. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212(1 Suppl):S362–3.

128. Kamyar M, Bardsley T, Korgenski K, Clark EAS. Association of antenatal magnesium sulfate with neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. Reprod Sci. 2015;22(Suppl 1):144A.

129. Kamyar M, Clark EA, Yoder BA, Varner MW, Manuck TA. Antenatal magnesium sulfate, necrotizing enterocolitis, and death among neonates<28 weeks gestation. AJP Rep. 2016;6(1):e148–54. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1581059 27054046

130. Kamyar M, Manuck TA, Stoddard GJ, Varner MW, Clark EAS. Magnesium sulfate, chorioamnionitis, and neurodevelopment after preterm birth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016;123(7):1161–6.

131. Kamyar M, Varner M, Clark E. Magnesium sulfate neuroprophylaxis and the effect of infant sex. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212(1 Suppl):S144.

132. Katayama Y, Minami H, Enomoto M, Takano T, Hayashi S, Lee YK. Antenatal magnesium sulfate and the postnatal response of the ductus arteriosus to indomethacin in extremely preterm neonates. J Perinatol. 2011;31(1):21–4. doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.62 20505743

133. Kelly MJ, Viscardi RM. Effects of maternal magnesium sulfate on preterm newborns. Pediatr Res. 1992;31(4 Pt 2):207A.

134. Khodapanahandeh F, Khosravi N, Larijani T. Risk factors for intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants in Tehran, Iran. Turk J Pediatr. 2008;50(3):247–52. 18773670

135. Kimberlin DF, Hauth JC, Goldenberg RL, Bottoms SF, Iams JD, Mercer B, et al. The effect of maternal magnesium sulfate treatment on neonatal morbidity in < or = 1000-gram infants. Am J Perinatol. 1998;15(11):635–41. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-994082 10064205

136. Koksal N, Baytan B, Bayram Y, Nacarkucuk E. Risk factors for intraventricular haemorrhage in very low birth weight infants. Indian J Pediatr. 2002;69(7):561–4. doi: 10.1007/bf02722677 12173693

137. Kuban KC, Leviton A, Pagano M, Fenton T, Strassfeld R, Wolff M. Maternal toxemia is associated with reduced incidence of germinal matrix hemorrhage in premature babies. J Child Neurol. 1992;7(1):70–6. doi: 10.1177/088307389200700113 1552156

138. Lai TC, Liao CY. Maternal magnesium sulfate treatment and infant outcomes. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2017;43(Suppl 1):56–7.

139. Lee B, Cho GJ, Jin HM, Chung SH, Oh MJ, Kim HJ. Maternal magnesium sulfate treatment is not associated with serum calcium levels of preterm neonate. J Perinat Med. 2015;43:667.

140. Lee NY, Cho SJ, Park EA. Influence of antenatal magnesium sulfate exposure on perinatal outcomes in VLBW infants with maternal preeclampsia. Neonatal Med. 2013;20(1):28–34.

141. Leung JC, Cifra CL, Agthe AG, Sun CC, Viscardi RM. Antenatal factors modulate hearing screen failure risk in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016;101(1):F56–61. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-307843 26195624

142. Leviton A, Paneth N, Susser M, Reuss ML, Allred EN, Kuban K, et al. Maternal receipt of magnesium sulfate does not seem to reduce the risk of neonatal white matter damage. Pediatrics. 1997;99(4):E2. doi: 10.1542/peds.99.4.e2 9099777

143. Lipsitz PJ. The clinical and biochemical effects of excess magnesium in the newborn. Pediatrics. 1971;47(3):501–9. 5547870

144. Lloreda-Garcia JM, Lorente-Nicolás A, Bermejo-Costa F, Martínez-Uriarte J, López-Pérez R. Necesidad de reanimación en prematuros menores de 32 semanas expuestos a sulfato de magnesio para neuroprotección fetal. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2016;87(4):261–7.

145. Martin D, Gonzalez JL, Gardner MO, Izquierdo LA, Tobey K, Curet LB. Incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates under 32 weeks of gestation delivered to mothers with severe pre-eclampsia. Prenat Neonatal Med. 1998;3(2):250–4.

146. Matsuda Y, Maeda Y, Ito M, Sakamoto H, Masaoka N, Takada M, et al. Effect of magnesium sulfate treatment on neonatal bone abnormalities. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(2):82–8. doi: 10.1159/000291492 9286718

147. McGuinness GA, Weinstein MM, Cruikshank DP, Pitkin RM. Effects of magnesium sulfate treatment on perinatal calcium metabolism. II. Neonatal responses. Obstet Gynecol. 1980;56(5):595–600. 7432730

148. McPherson JA, Rouse DJ, Grobman WA, Palatnik A, Stamilio DM. Association of duration of neuroprotective magnesium sulfate infusion with neonatal and maternal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124(4):749–55. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000467 25198275

149. Mikhael M, Bronson C, Zhang L, Curran M, Rodriguez H, Bhakta KY. Lack of evidence for time or dose relationship between antenatal magnesium sulfate and intestinal injury in extremely preterm neonates. Neonatology. 2019;115(4):371–8. doi: 10.1159/000497412 30965340

150. Mitani M, Matsuda Y, Shimada E. Short- and long-term outcomes in babies born after antenatal magnesium treatment. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37(11):1609–14. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2011.01583.x 21733038

151. Mittendorf R, Besinger R, Santillan M, Gianopoulos J. When used in the circumstance of preterm labor, is there a paradoxical effect of varying exposures to magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the developing human brain? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193(6):S65.

152. Mittendorf R, Pryde P, Gianopoulos J, Besinger R, Lee K-S. Thalamostriate vasculopathy in the neonate is associated with antenatal exposures to tocolytic MgSO4. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201(6):S79.

153. Morag I, Okrent AL, Strauss T, Staretz-Chacham O, Kuint J, Simchen MJ, et al. Early neonatal morbidities and associated modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in a cohort of infants born at 34–35 weeks of gestation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015;28(8):876–82. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2014.938043 24962498

154. Morag I, Yakubovich D, Stern O, Siman-Tov M, Schushan-Eisen I, Strauss T, et al. Short-term morbidities and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants exposed to magnesium sulphate treatment. J Paediatr Child Health. 2016;52(4):397–401. doi: 10.1111/jpc.13103 27145502

155. Moschos E, Magee K. Does magnesium sulfate exposure decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(6 Suppl):S148.

156. Murata Y, Itakura A, Matsuzawa K, Okumura A, Wakai K, Mizutani S. Possible antenatal and perinatal related factors in development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Brain Dev. 2005;27(1):17–21. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2004.02.011 15626536

157. Nakamura Y, Ibara S, Ikenoue T. Effect of maternally administered magnesium sulfate on the neonate. J Perinat Med. 1991;19(Suppl 2):136.

158. Narasimhulu D, Brown A, Egbert NM, Rojas M, Haberman S, Bhutada A, et al. Maternal magnesium therapy, neonatal serum magnesium concentration and immediate neonatal outcomes. J Perinatol. 2017;37(12):1297–303. doi: 10.1038/jp.2017.132 28981078

159. Nassar AH, Sakhel K, Maarouf H, Naassan GR, Usta IM. Adverse maternal and neonatal outcome of prolonged course of magnesium sulfate tocolysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(9):1099–103. doi: 10.1080/00016340600756896 16929415

160. Nelson KB, Grether JK. Can magnesium sulfate reduce the risk of cerebral palsy in very low birthweight infants? Pediatrics. 1995;95(2):263–9. 7838646

161. Nunes RD, Schutz FD, Traebert JL. Association between the use of magnesium sulfate as neuroprotector in prematurity and the neonatal hemodynamic effects. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018;31(14):1900–5. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1332033 28521581

162. O Reilly E, Rogers EL, Hayes B. Effects of magnesium sulphate on respiratory function in the preterm infants who received magnesium sulphate prophylaxis at delivery. Ir J Med Sci. 2016;185:S277–8.

163. Okusanya BO, Garba KK, Ibrahim HM. The efficacy of 10gram intramuscular loading dose of MgSO(4) in severe preeclampsia/ eclampsia at a tertiary referral centre in Northwest Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2012;19(3):143–8. 23064169

164. Özlü F, Hacıoğlu C, Büyükkurt S, Yapıcıoğlu H, Satar M. Changes on preterm morbidities with antenatal magnesium. Cukurova Med J. 2019;44(2):502–8. doi: 10.17826/cumj.444238

165. Palatnik A, Liu LY, Lee A, Yee LM. Predictors of early-onset neonatal sepsis or death among newborns born at <32 weeks of gestation. J Perinatol. 2019;39(7):949–55. doi: 10.1038/s41372-019-0395-9 31089257

166. Paneth N, Jetton J, Pinto-Martin J, Susser M. Magnesium sulfate in labor and risk of neonatal brain lesions and cerebral palsy in low birth weight infants. The Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study Analysis Group. Pediatrics. 1997;99(5):E1. doi: 10.1542/peds.99.5.e1 9113958

167. Perlman J, Fernandez C, Gee J, Leveno K, Risser R. Magnesium sulphate (Mg) administered to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is associated with a reduction in periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PV-IVH). Pediatr Res. 1995;37(4 Pt 2):231A.

168. Petrov V, Lupascu A, Etsco L, Pavlenco A. Maternal and new born hemodynamics after antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MGSO4), as a neuroprotective drug in preterm birth. J Perinat Med. 2013;41(Suppl 1):RU350.

169. Petrova A, Mehta R. Magnesium sulfate tocolysis and intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants. Indian J Pediatr. 2012;79(1):43–7. doi: 10.1007/s12098-011-0440-y 21625843

170. Qasim A, Jain S, Dasgupta S. Does antenatal magnesium sulfate increase the likelihood of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in neonates? J Investig Med. 2017;65(2):547–8.

171. Rantonen T, Kaapa P, Gronlund J, Ekblad U, Helenius H, Kero P, et al. Maternal magnesium sulfate treatment is associated with reduced brain-blood flow perfusion in preterm infants. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(7):1460–5. doi: 10.1097/00003246-200107000-00026 11445708

172. Rasch DK, Huber PA, Richardson CJ, L’Hommedieu CS, Nelson TE, Reddi R. Neurobehavioral effects of neonatal hypermagnesemia. J Pediatr. 1982;100(2):272–6. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(82)80654-9 7199083

173. Rattray BN, Kraus DM, Drinker LR, Goldberg RN, Tanaka DT, Cotten CM. Antenatal magnesium sulfate and spontaneous intestinal perforation in infants less than 25 weeks gestation. J Perinatol. 2014;34(11):819–22. doi: 10.1038/jp.2014.106 24901451

174. Rauf M, Sevil E, Ebru C, Yavuz S, Cemil C. Antenatal magnesium sulfate use for fetal neuroprotection: experience from a tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Biomed Res. 2017;28(4):1749–54.

175. Rhee E, Beiswenger T, Oguejiofor CE, James AH. The effects of magnesium sulfate on maternal and fetal platelet aggregation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25(5):478–83. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2011.584087 21762000

176. Riaz M, Porat R, Brodsky NL, Hurt H. The effects of maternal magnesium sulfate treatment on newborns: a prospective controlled study. J Perinatol. 1998;18(6 Pt 1):449–54. 9848759

177. Rizzolo A, Shah PS, Boucorian I, Lemyre B, Bertelle V, Pelausa E, et al. Cumulative effect of evidence-based practices on outcomes of preterm infants born at <29 weeks gestational age. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Sept 6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.08.058 31499055

178. Sakae C, Sato Y, Kanbayashi S, Taga A, Emoto I, Maruyama S, et al. Introduction of management protocol for early-onset severe pre-eclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2017;43(4):644–52. doi: 10.1111/jog.13265 28150368

179. Sahin H, Akay AF, Bircan MK, Gocmen A, Bircan Z. The first micturition times of the newborns whose mothers were treated with magnesium sulfate. Int Urol Nephrol. 2001;32(4):651–3. doi: 10.1023/a:1014405824678 11989558

180. Salafia CM, Minior VK, Rosenkrantz TS, Pezzullo JC, Popek EJ, Cusick W, et al. Maternal, placental, and neonatal associations with early germinal matrix/intraventricular hemorrhage in infants born before 32 weeks’ gestation. Am J Perinatol. 1995;12(6):429–36. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-994514 8579656

181. Sarkar S, Bhagat I, Dechert R, Schumacher RE, Donn SM. Severe intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants: comparison of risk factors and short-term neonatal morbidities between grade 3 and grade 4 intraventricular hemorrhage. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26(6):419–24. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1214237 19267317

182. Schanler RJ, Smith LG, Burns PA. Effects of long-term maternal intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy on neonatal calcium metabolism and bone mineral content. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;43(4):236–41. doi: 10.1159/000291864 9194621

183. Scudiero R, Khoshnood B, Pryde PG, Lee KS, Wall S, Mittendorf R. Perinatal death and tocolytic magnesium sulfate. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96(2):178–82. doi: 10.1016/s0029-7844(00)00893-0 10908759

184. Shalabi M, Mohamed A, Lemyre B, Aziz K, Faucher D, Shah PS, et al. Antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate and spontaneous intestinal perforation and necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely preterm neonates. Am J Perinatol. 2017;34(12):1227–33. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1603344 28494498

185. Shamsuddin L, Nahar K, Nasrin B, Nahar S, Tamanna S, Kabir RM, et al. Use of parenteral magnesium sulphate in eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia cases in a rural set up of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2005;31(2):75–82. 16967813

186. Shokry M, Elsedfy GO, Bassiouny MM, Anmin M, Abozid H. Effects of antenatal magnesium sulfate therapy on cerebral and systemic hemodynamics in preterm newborns. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(6):801–6. doi: 10.3109/00016341003739542 20504082

187. Stetson BT, Buhimschi CS, Kellert BA, Hay K, Buhimschi IA, Maitre NL. Comparison of cerebral palsy severity between 2 eras of antenatal magnesium use. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(2):188–90. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.3827 30508016

188. Stockley EL, Ting JY, Kingdom JC, McDonald SD, Barrett JF, Synnes AR, et al. Intrapartum magnesium sulfate is associated with neuroprotection in growth-restricted fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;219(6):606e1–8.

189. Suh B, Ko K, Bang J, Oh Y, Lee Y, Lee J, et al. Neonatal outcomes of premature infants who were delivered from mother with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and effects of antihypertensive drugs and MgSO4. Korean J Perinatol. 2015;26(3):190–9.

190. Teng RJ, Wu TJ, Sharma R, Garrison RD, Hudak ML. Early neonatal hypotension in premature infants born to preeclamptic mothers. J Perinatol. 2006;26(8):471–5. doi: 10.1038/ 16775620

191. Verma RP, Chandra S, Niwas R, Komaroff E. Risk factors and clinical outcomes of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in extremely low birth weight infants. J Perinatol. 2006;26(3):197–200. doi: 10.1038/ 16493434

192. Weintraub Z, Solovechick M, Reichman B, Rotschild A, Waisman D, Davkin O, et al. Effect of maternal tocolysis on the incidence of severe periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage in very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2001;85(1):F13–7. doi: 10.1136/fn.85.1.F13 11420315

193. Weisz D, Shivananda S, Asztalos E, Yee W, Synnes A, Lee S, et al. Intrapartum magnesium sulfate and need for intensive delivery room resuscitation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2015;100(1):F59–65. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2013-305884 25232002

194. Whitsel A, Insel A, Desilva H, Bernstein B. Association of maternal antepartum management with mortality and morbidity of the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) neonate. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191(6 Suppl):S75.

195. Whitten A, Ogunyemi D, Betcher K, Nowakowski A, Qu S. What factors predict prolonged neonatal length of stay in term babies? Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015;131:E462–3.

196. Wiswell TE, Caddell JL, Graziani LJ, Kornhauser MS, Spitzer AR. Maternally-administered magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) decreases the incidence of severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants: a prospective study. Pediatr Res. 1996;39(4):1501.

197. Wutthigate P, Yangthara B, Siripattanapipong P, Kitsommart R. Correlation between maternal cumulative dose of intrapartum magnesium sulfate and cord blood magnesium level. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2017;48(Suppl 2):256–63.

198. Yokoyama K, Takahashi N, Yada Y, Koike Y, Kawamata R, Uehara R, et al. Prolonged maternal magnesium administration and bone metabolism in neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86(3):187–91. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.02.007 20226604

199. Young BK, Weinstein HM. Effects of magnesium sulfate on toxemic patients in labor. Obstet Gynecol. 1977;49(6):681–5. 865731

200. Ahmad S, Miller M, Slaughter S. Is there any evidence for fetal harm with prolonged used of magnesium sulfate in pregnant women? Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013;22(1):141.

201. Amodio J, Berdon W, Abramson S, Stolar C. Microcolon of prematurity: a form of functional obstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;146(2):239–44. doi: 10.2214/ajr.146.2.239 3484569

202. Cruz M, Doren A, Fernandez B, Antonio Salinas J, Urzua S, Lui Tapia J. Intoxicación neonatal por sulfato de magnesio: caso clínico. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2009;80(3):261–6.

203. Cumming W, Thomas V. Hypermagnesemia: a cause of abnormal metaphyses in the neonate. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989;152(5):1071–2. doi: 10.2214/ajr.152.5.1071 2705341

204. Herschel M, Mittendorf R. Tocolytic magnesium sulfate toxicity and unexpected neonatal death. J Perinatol. 2001;21(4):261–2. doi: 10.1038/ 11533846

205. Brady J. Magnesium intoxication in a premature infant. Pediatrics. 1967;40(1):100–3. 6028888

206. Jashi R, Gorgadze N. Maternal medication part of infant mortality. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27:320–1.

207. Kaplan W, Haymond MW, McKay S, Karaviti LP. Osteopenic effects of MgSO4 in multiple pregnancies. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006;19(10):1225–30. doi: 10.1515/jpem.2006.19.10.1225 17172083

208. Kogan JM, Wedig KE, Whitsett JA, Schorry EK. Prolonged prenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate associated with bone abnormalities mimicking genetic bone disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;73(5 Suppl):590.

209. Krasna IH, Rosenfeld D, Salerno P. Is it necrotizing enterocolitis, microcolon of prematurity, or delayed meconium plug? A dilemma in the tiny premature infant. J Pediatr Surg. 1996;31(6):855–8. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3468(96)90153-0 8783123

210. Kurtoglu S, Caksen H, Poyrazoglu MH. Neonatal poisonings in middle Anatolia of Turkey: an analysis of 72 cases. J Toxicol Sci. 2000;25(2):115–9. doi: 10.2131/jts.25.115 10845189

211. L’Hommedieu CS, Huber P, Rasch DK. Potentiation of magnesium-induced neuromuscular weakness by gentamicin. Crit Care Med. 1983;11(1):55–6. doi: 10.1097/00003246-198301000-00015 6848309

212. Lamm C, Norton K, Murphy R, Wilkins I, Rabinowitz J. Congenital rickets associated with magnesium sulfate infusion for tocolysis. J Pediatr. 1988;113(6):1078–82. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(88)80586-9 3193315

213. Lipsitz P, English I. Hypermagnesemia in the newborn infant. Pediatrics. 1967;40(5):856–62. 6075658

214. Malaeb S, Rassi A, Haddad M, Seoud M, Yunis K. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of preterm labour. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34(384–6).

215. Rasch D, Richardson C. Effect of gentamicin on neuromuscular function (NMF) of a hypermagnesemic neonate. Pediatr Res. 1981;15(4):499.

216. Sokal M, Koenigsberger M, Rose J, Berdon W, Santulli T. Neonatal hypermagnesemia and the meconium-plug syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1972;286(1):823–5.

217. Tanaka K, Mori H, Sakamoto R, Matsumoto S, Mitsubuchi H, Nakamura K, et al. Early-onset neonatal hyperkalemia associated with maternal hypermagnesemia: a case report. BMC Pediatr. 2018;15(1):55.

218. Teng R, Liu H, Tsou Yau K. Neonatal hypermagnesemia: report of one case. Acta Paediatr Sin. 1989;30(5):333–6. 2637615

219. Smith JM, Lowe RF, Fullerton J, Currie SM, Harris L, Felker-Kantor E. An integrative review of the side effects related to the use of magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia management. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:34. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-34 23383864

220. Duffy J, Hirsch M, Pealing L, Showell M, Khan KS, Ziebland S, et al. Inadequate safety reporting in pre-eclampsia trials: a systematic evaluation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;125(7):795–803.

221. McNamara HC, Crowther CA, Brown J. Different treatment regimens of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis in women in preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD011200. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011200.pub2 26662716

222. Garg BD. Antenatal magnesium sulfate is beneficial or harmful in very preterm and extremely preterm neonates: a new insight. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019;32(12):2084–90. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1424823 29301419

223. Golder S, Loke YK, Wright K, Norman G. Reporting of adverse events in published and unpublished studies of health care interventions: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2016;13(9):e1002127. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002127 27649528

224. Shea BJ, Reeves BC, Wells G, Thuku M, Hamel C, Moran J, et al. AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. BMJ. 2017;358:j4008. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4008 28935701

Interné lekárstvo

Článok vyšiel v časopise

PLOS Medicine

2019 Číslo 12

Najčítanejšie v tomto čísle

Tejto téme sa ďalej venujú…


Zvýšte si kvalifikáciu online z pohodlia domova

Faktory ovlivňující léčbu levotyroxinem
nový kurz

Kurz originály vs. generika

Autori: MUDr. Petr Výborný, CSc., FEBO

Autori: MUDr. Jiří Horažďovský, Ph.D

Klinická farmakokinetika betablokátorů

Všetky kurzy
Zabudnuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa

Zabudnuté heslo

Zadajte e-mailovú adresu, s ktorou ste vytvárali účet. Budú Vám na ňu zasielané informácie k nastaveniu nového hesla.


Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa