Randomized Controlled Trials in Environmental Health Research: Unethical or Underutilized?

Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Vyšlo v časopise: Randomized Controlled Trials in Environmental Health Research: Unethical or Underutilized?. PLoS Med 12(1): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001775
Kategorie: Essay
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001775


Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary


1. GrimesDA, SchulzKF (2012) False Alarms and Pseudo-Epidemics The Limitations of Observational Epidemiology. Obstet Gynecol 120: 920–927.

2. TaubesG (1995) Epidemiology Faces Its Limits. Science 269: 164–169.

3. SmithGD, EbrahimS (2002) Data dredging, bias, or confounding. BMJ 325: 1437–1438.

4. BurnettRT, PopeCA, EzzatiM, OlivesC, LimSS, et al. (2014) An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122: 397–403.

5. LanphearBP, HornungR, KhouryJ, YoltonK, BaghurstlP, et al. (2005) Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: An international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 113: 894–899.

6. DarbyS, HillD, AuvinenA, Barrios-DiosJM, BayssonH, et al. (2005) Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. BMJ 330: 223–226.

7. ChenY, GrazianoJH, ParvezF, LiuML, SlavkovichV, et al. (2011) Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort study. BMJ 342: 11.

8. GoodmanM, MorganRW, RayR, MalloyCD, ZhaoK (1999) Cancer in asbestos-exposed occupational cohorts: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 10: 453–465.

9. LimSS, VosT, FlaxmanAD, DanaeiG, ShibuyaK, et al. (2012) A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380: 2224–2260.

10. Pruss-UstunA, CorvalanC (2007) How much disease burden can be prevented by environmental interventions? Epidemiology 18: 167–178.

11. Pruss-UstunA, BonjourS, CorvalanC (2008) The impact of the environment on health by country: a meta-synthesis. Environ Health 7: 7.

12. SmithKR, EzzatiM (2005) How environmental health risks change with development: The epidemiologic and environmental risk transitions revisited. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30: 291–333.

13. SmithKR (2002) Indoor air pollution in developing countries: recommendations for research. Indoor Air 12: 198–207.

14. ChokshiDA, FarleyTA (2012) The Cost-Effectiveness of Environmental Approaches to Disease Prevention. N Engl J Med 367: 295–297.

15. GouldE (2009) Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control. Environ Health Perspect 117: 1162–1167.

16. EPA (2011) The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2020. Office of Air and Radiation. Available: http://www.epa.gov/cleanairactbenefits/feb11/summaryreport.pdf. Accessed 26 November 2014.

17. HuttonG, RehfuessE, TediosiF (2007) Evaluation of the costs and benefits of interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Energy for Sustainable Development 11: 34–43.

18. AmitaiY, BrownMJ, GraefJW, CosgroveE (1991) Residential deleading - effects on the blood lead levels of lead-poisoned children. Pediatrics 88: 893–897.

19. AschengrauA, BeiserA, BellingerD, CopenhaferD, WeitzmanM (1997) Residential lead-based-paint hazard remediation and soil lead abatement: Their impact among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Am J Public Health 87: 1698–1702.

20. WoodcockA, ForsterL, MatthewsE, MartinJ, LetleyL, et al. (2003) Control of exposure to mite allergen and allergen-impermeable bed covers for adults with asthma. N Engl J Med 349: 225–236.

21. PrasadV, VandrossA, ToomeyC, CheungM, RhoJ, et al. (2013) A Decade of Reversal: An Analysis of 146 Contradicted Medical Practices. Mayo Clin Proc 88: 790–798.

22. BC Centre for Disease Control (2014) Evidence Review: Using Masks to Protect Public Health During Wildfire Smoke Events. Available: http://www.bccdc.ca/NR/rdonlyres/5D1896FC-BE00-4DFB-B89A-39D4D98B8B82/0/WFSG_EvidenceReview_UsingMasks_FINAL_v5trs.pdf. Accessed 26 November 2014.

23. PatilSR, ArnoldBF, SalvatoreAL, BricenoB, GangulyS, et al. (2014) The Effect of India's Total Sanitation Campaign on Defecation Behaviors and Child Health in Rural Madhya Pradesh: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS Med 11: 17.

24. ClancyL, GoodmanP, SinclairH, DockeryDW (2002) Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study. Lancet 360: 1210–1214.


26. JohnstonFH, HaniganIC, HendersonSB, MorganGG (2013) Evaluation of interventions to reduce air pollution from biomass smoke on mortality in Launceston, Australia: retrospective analysis of daily mortality, 1994–2007. BMJ 346: 11.

27. PirkleJL, BrodyDJ, GunterEW, KramerRA, PaschalDC, et al. (1994) The Decline In Blood Lead Levels In The United-States - The National-Health And Nutrition Examination Surveys (Nhanes). JAMA 272: 284–291.

28. Groves-KirkbyCJ, DenmanAR, PhillipsPS, CrockettRGM, WoolridgeAC, et al. (2006) Radon mitigation in domestic properties and its health implications - a comparison between during-construction and post-construction radon reduction. Environment International 32: 435–443.

29. HendersonDE, MilfordJB, MillerSL (2005) Prescribed burns and wildfires in Colorado: Impacts of mitigation measures on indoor air particulate matter. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 55: 1516–1526.

30. FritzJA, ClelandJ (2003) Effectiveness versus efficacy: More than a debate over language. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 33: 163–165.

31. RothwellPM (2006) Factors that can affect the external validity of randomized controlled trials. PLoS Clin Trials 1: e9.

32. SchmidtWP, CairncrossS (2009) Household Water Treatment in Poor Populations: Is There Enough Evidence for Scaling up Now? Environ Sci Technol 43: 986–992.

33. RehfuessEA, BartramJ (2014) Beyond direct impact: Evidence synthesis towards a better understanding of effectiveness of environmental health interventions. Int J Hyg Environ Health 217: 155–159.

34. KansagraSM, FarleyTA (2011) Public Health Research: Lost in Translation or Speaking the Wrong Language? Am J Public Health 101: 2203–2206.

35. RoseG (2001) Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol 30: 427–432.

36. BraunerEV, ForchhammerL, MollerP, BarregardL, GunnarsenL, et al. (2008) Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged - An air filtration-based intervention study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177: 419–425.

37. LanphearBP, HornungRW, KhouryJ, YoltonK, LierlM, et al. (2011) Effects of HEPA Air Cleaners on Unscheduled Asthma Visits and Asthma Symptoms for Children Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke. Pediatrics 127: 93–101.

38. AllenRW, CarlstenC, KarlenB, LeckieS, van EedenS, et al. (2011) An Air Filter Intervention Study of Endothelial Function among Healthy Adults in a Woodsmoke-impacted Community. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183: 1222–1230.

39. ResnikDB (2008) Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: Ethical issues. J Environ Health 70: 28–30.

40. FreedmanB (1987) Equipoise And The Ethics Of Clinical Research. N Engl J Med 317: 141–145.

41. AngellM (1990) The Nazi Hypothermia Experiments And Unethical Research Today. N Engl J Med 322: 1462–1464.

42. KumarA, SoaresH, WellsR, ClarkeM, HozoL, et al. (2005) Are experimental treatments for cancer in children superior to established treatments? Observational study of randomised controlled trials by the Children's Oncology Group. BMJ 331: 1295–1298B.

43. SathyanarayanaS, AlcedoG, SaelensBE, ZhouC, DillsRL, et al. (2013) Unexpected results in a randomized dietary trial to reduce phthalate and bisphenol A exposures. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 23: 378–384.

44. EmanuelEJ, WendlerD, GradyC (2000) What makes clinical research ethical? JAMA 283: 2701–2711.

45. El SetouhyM, AgbenyegaT, AntoF, ClerkCA, KoramKA, et al. (2002) Fair benefits for research in developing countries. Science 298: 2133–2134.

46. GlickmanSW, McHutchisonJG, PetersonED, CairnsCB, HarringtonRA, et al. (2009) Ethical and Scientific Implications of the Globalization of Clinical Research. N Engl J Med 360: 816–823.

47. ResnikDB, WingS (2007) Lessons learned from the children's environmental exposure research study. Am J Public Health 97: 414–418.

48. WoodL, EggerM, GluudLL, SchulzKF, JuniP, et al. (2008) Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 336: 601–605.

49. ClasenT, RobertsI, RabieT, SchmidtW, CairncrossS (2006) Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD004794.

50. MorganWJ, CrainEF, GruchallaRS, O'ConnorGT, KattanM, et al. (2004) Results of a home-based environmental intervention among urban children with asthma. N Engl J Med 351: 1068–1080.

51. HartingerSM, LanataCF, HattendorfJ, GilAI, VerasteguiH, et al. (2011) A community randomised controlled trial evaluating a home-based environmental intervention package of improved stoves, solar water disinfection and kitchen sinks in rural Peru: Rationale, trial design and baseline findings. Contemp Clin Trials 32: 864–873.

52. KesslerRC, DuncanGJ, GennetianLA, KatzLF, KlingJR, et al. (2014) Associations of Housing Mobility Interventions for Children in High-Poverty Neighborhoods With Subsequent Mental Disorders During Adolescence. JAMA 311: 937–947.

53. LudwigJ, SanbonmatsuL, GennetianL, AdamE, DuncanGJ, et al. (2011) Neighborhoods, Obesity, and Diabetes - A Randomized Social Experiment. N Engl J Med 365: 1509–1519.

54. LeventhalT, Brooks-GunnJ (2004) A randomized study of neighborhood effects on low-income children's educational outcomes. Dev Psychol 40: 488–507.

55. LudwigJ, DuncanGJ, GennetianLA, KatzLF, KesslerRC, et al. (2012) Neighborhood Effects on the Long-Term Well-Being of Low-Income Adults. Science 337: 1505–1510.

56. SciandraM, SanbonmatsuL, DuncanGJ, GennetianLA, KatzLF, et al. (2013) Long-term effects of the Moving to Opportunity residential mobility experiment on crime and delinquency. J Exp Criminol 9: 451–489.

57. J-PAL (2005) Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab. Available: http://www.povertyactionlab.org/. Accessed 28 October 2014.

58. DadvandP, ParkerJ, BellML, BonziniM, BrauerM, et al. (2013) Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and Heterogeneity. Environ Health Perspect 121: 367–373.

59. SavitzDA, BobbJF, CarrJL, CloughertyJE, DominiciF, et al. (2014) Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Term Birth Weight in New York, New York. Am J Epidemiol 179: 457–466.

60. BosettiC, NieuwenhuijsenMJ, GallusS, CiprianiS, La VecchiaC, et al. (2010) Ambient particulate matter and preterm birth or birth weight: a review of the literature. Arch Toxicol 84: 447–460.

61. Allen RW, Gombojav E, Barkhasragchaa B, Byambaa T, Lkhasuren O, et al.. (2011) An assessment of air pollution and its attributable mortality in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Air Qual Atmos Health. E-pub ahead of print. doi:10.1007/s11869-011-0154-3

62. FengerJ (1999) Urban air quality. Atmos Environ 33: 4877–4900.

63. Ochir C, Smith KR, Hill LD, Baljinnyam P, Damdinsuren Y, et al.. (2014) Air Pollution and Health in Ulaanbaatar. Available: http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/krsmith/publications/2014/UB%20Final%20Report%20-%20July%2010.pdf. Accessed 26 November 2014.

64. BrauerM, AmannM, BurnettRT, CohenA, DentenerF, et al. (2012) Exposure Assessment for Estimation of the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Outdoor Air Pollution. Environ Sci Technol 46: 652–660.

Interné lekárstvo

Článok vyšiel v časopise

PLOS Medicine

2015 Číslo 1
Najčítanejšie tento týždeň
Najčítanejšie v tomto čísle

Zvýšte si kvalifikáciu online z pohodlia domova

Eozinofilní granulomatóza s polyangiitidou
nový kurz

Betablokátory a Ca antagonisté z jiného úhlu
Autori: prof. MUDr. Michal Vrablík, Ph.D., MUDr. Petr Janský

Autori: doc. MUDr. Petr Čáp, Ph.D.

Farmakoterapie akutní a chronické bolesti

Získaná hemofilie - Povědomí o nemoci a její diagnostika

Všetky kurzy
Zabudnuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa

Zabudnuté heslo

Zadajte e-mailovú adresu, s ktorou ste vytvárali účet. Budú Vám na ňu zasielané informácie k nastaveniu nového hesla.


Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa