Clinico-pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with biopsy-proven hypertensive nephrosclerosis: a retrospective cohort study


Background:
This study aimed to investigate renal outcomes and their predictors in biopsy-proven hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HN) patients and to compare clinico-pathological characteristics and prognoses between benign nephrosclerosis (BN) and malignant nephrosclerosis (MN) patients.

Methods:
Data for biopsy-proven HN patients were retrospectively analyzed. Renal survival rates and relationships between clinico-pathological characteristics and outcomes were assessed.

Results:
A total of 194 patients were enrolled; the mean age at biopsy was 43.8 years, and male gender predominated (82.5 %). The median duration of hypertension was 5.0 years, and the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 195 ± 37 and 126 ± 26 mmHg, respectively. The median serum creatinine (Scr) level, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and proteinuria level were 1.61 mg/dl, 49.6 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 0.80 g/24 h, respectively. BN and MN were found by renal biopsy in 55.2 % and 44.8 % of patients, respectively. At biopsy, MN patients were younger, and had higher median Scr and proteinuria levels, higher incidences of anemia, hypertensive heart disease and hypertensive retinopathy, and worse renal outcomes than BN patients. During a median follow-up period of 3.0 years, 36 patients (18.6 %) reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the 5- and 10-year cumulative renal survival rates for HN patients were 84.5 % and 48.9 %, respectively. A decreased baseline eGFR, an increased baseline proteinuria level, anemia, increased percentage of global glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TAIF) were independent predictors of future ESRD.

Conclusions:
The clinico-pathological characteristics and prognoses were significantly different between the MN and BN patients. The renal outcomes of HN patients were independently associated with the baseline eGFR and proteinuria level, anemia, percentage of global glomerulosclerosis and TAIF.

Keywords:
Hypertension, Benign nephrosclerosis, Malignant nephrosclerosis, Risk factors, Renal survival


Autoři: Shaoshan Liang *;  Weibo Le;  Dandan Liang;  Hao Chen;  Feng Xu;  Huiping Chen;  Zhihong Liu;  Caihong Zeng *
Vyšlo v časopise: BMC Nefrol 2016, 17:42
Kategorie: Research Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.1186/s12882-016-0254-2

© 2016 Liang et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12882-016-0254-2

Souhrn

Background:
This study aimed to investigate renal outcomes and their predictors in biopsy-proven hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HN) patients and to compare clinico-pathological characteristics and prognoses between benign nephrosclerosis (BN) and malignant nephrosclerosis (MN) patients.

Methods:
Data for biopsy-proven HN patients were retrospectively analyzed. Renal survival rates and relationships between clinico-pathological characteristics and outcomes were assessed.

Results:
A total of 194 patients were enrolled; the mean age at biopsy was 43.8 years, and male gender predominated (82.5 %). The median duration of hypertension was 5.0 years, and the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 195 ± 37 and 126 ± 26 mmHg, respectively. The median serum creatinine (Scr) level, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and proteinuria level were 1.61 mg/dl, 49.6 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 0.80 g/24 h, respectively. BN and MN were found by renal biopsy in 55.2 % and 44.8 % of patients, respectively. At biopsy, MN patients were younger, and had higher median Scr and proteinuria levels, higher incidences of anemia, hypertensive heart disease and hypertensive retinopathy, and worse renal outcomes than BN patients. During a median follow-up period of 3.0 years, 36 patients (18.6 %) reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the 5- and 10-year cumulative renal survival rates for HN patients were 84.5 % and 48.9 %, respectively. A decreased baseline eGFR, an increased baseline proteinuria level, anemia, increased percentage of global glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TAIF) were independent predictors of future ESRD.

Conclusions:
The clinico-pathological characteristics and prognoses were significantly different between the MN and BN patients. The renal outcomes of HN patients were independently associated with the baseline eGFR and proteinuria level, anemia, percentage of global glomerulosclerosis and TAIF.

Keywords:
Hypertension, Benign nephrosclerosis, Malignant nephrosclerosis, Risk factors, Renal survival


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