Mineralization of Early Stage Carious Lesions In Vitro—A Quantitative Approach


Micro computed tomography has been combined with dedicated data analysis for the in vitro quantification of sub-surface enamel lesion mineralization. Two artificial white spot lesions, generated on a human molar crown in vitro, were examined. One lesion was treated with a self-assembling peptide intended to trigger nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals. We non-destructively determined the local X-ray attenuation within the specimens before and after treatment. The three-dimensional data was rigidly registered. Three interpolation methods, i.e., nearest neighbor, tri-linear, and tri-cubic interpolation were evaluated. The mineralization of the affected regions was quantified via joint histogram analysis, i.e., a voxel-by-voxel comparison of the tomography data before and after mineralization. After ten days incubation, the mean mineralization coefficient reached 35.5% for the peptide-treated specimen compared to 11.5% for the control. This pilot study does not give any evidence for the efficacy of peptide treatment nor allows estimating the necessary number of specimens to achieve significance, but shows a sound methodological approach on the basis of the joint histogram analysis.

Keywords:
enamel caries; mineralization; demineralization; self-assembling peptide; image registration; micro computed tomography; joint histogram


Autoři: Hans Deyhle 1;  Iwona Dziadowiec 1;  Lucy Kind 2;  Peter Thalmann 1;  Georg Schulz 1;  Bert Müller 1,*
Působiště autorů: Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 41 3 Allschwil, Switzerland 1;  University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, Gründenstrasse 40, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland 2
Vyšlo v časopise: Dent. J.2015 3(4)
Kategorie: Article
prolekare.web.journal.doi_sk: 10.3390/dj3040111

© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.mdpi.com/2304-6767/3/4/111

Souhrn

Micro computed tomography has been combined with dedicated data analysis for the in vitro quantification of sub-surface enamel lesion mineralization. Two artificial white spot lesions, generated on a human molar crown in vitro, were examined. One lesion was treated with a self-assembling peptide intended to trigger nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals. We non-destructively determined the local X-ray attenuation within the specimens before and after treatment. The three-dimensional data was rigidly registered. Three interpolation methods, i.e., nearest neighbor, tri-linear, and tri-cubic interpolation were evaluated. The mineralization of the affected regions was quantified via joint histogram analysis, i.e., a voxel-by-voxel comparison of the tomography data before and after mineralization. After ten days incubation, the mean mineralization coefficient reached 35.5% for the peptide-treated specimen compared to 11.5% for the control. This pilot study does not give any evidence for the efficacy of peptide treatment nor allows estimating the necessary number of specimens to achieve significance, but shows a sound methodological approach on the basis of the joint histogram analysis.

Keywords:
enamel caries; mineralization; demineralization; self-assembling peptide; image registration; micro computed tomography; joint histogram


Zdroje

1. Featherstone, J.D. Dental caries: A dynamic process. Aust. Dent. J. 2008, 53, 286–291.

2. Shore, R.C.; Kirkham, J.; Brookes, S.J.; Wood, S.R.; Robinson, C. Distribution of exogenous proteins in caries lesions in relation to the pattern of demineralisation. Caries Res. 2000, 34, 188–193.

3. Wefel, J.S. Root caries histopathology and chemistry. Am. J. Dent. 1994, 7, 261–265.

4. de Marsillac, M.W.; de Sousa Vieira, R. Assesment of artificial caries lesions through scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional microhardness test. Indinan J. Dent. Res. 2013, 24, 249–254.

5. Wood, S.R.; Kirkham, J.; Marsh, P.D.; Shore, R.C.; Naltress, B.; Robinson, C. Architecture of intact natural human plaque biofilms studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. J. Dental Res. 2000, 79, 21–27.

6. Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W. Dentin caries zones: Mineral, structure, and properties. J. Dent. Res. 2009, 88, 71–76.

7. Buchalla, W.; Imfeld, T.; Attin, T.; Swain, M.V.; Schmidlin, P.R. Relationship between nanohardness and mineral content of artificial carious enamel lesions. Caries Res. 2008, 42, 157–163.

8. Dowker, S.E.P.; Anderson, P.; Elliott, J.C. Real-time measurement of in vitro enamel demineralization in the vicinity of the restoration-tooth interface. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 1999, 10, 379–382.

9. Tanaka, T.; Yagi, N.; Ohta, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Terada, H.; Kamasaka, K.; To-O, K.; Kometani, T.; Kuriki, T. Evaluation of the distribution and orientation of remineralized enamel crystallites in subsurface lesions by X-ray diffraction. Caries Res. 2010, 44, 253–259.

10. Deyhle, H.; White, S.N.; Bunk, O.; Beckmann, F.; Müller, B. Nanostructure of the carious tooth enamel lesion. Acta Biomater. 2014, 10, 355–364.

11. Yagi, N.; Ohta, T.; Matsuo, T.; Tanaka, T.; Terada, Y.; Kamasaka, H.; To-O, K.; Kometani, T.; Kuriki, T. Evaluation of enamel crystallites in subsurface lesion by microbeam X-ray diffraction. J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2009, 16, 398–404.

12. Märten, A.; Fratzl, P.; Paris, O.; Zaslansky, P. On the mineral in collagen of human crown dentine. Biomaterials 2010, 31, 5479–5490.

13. Deyhle, H.; Bunk, O.; Müller, B. Nanostructure of healthy and caries-affected human teeth. Nanomed. Nanotechnol. Biol. Med. 2011, 7, 694–701.

14. Deyhle, H.; Weitkamp, T.; Lang, S.; Schulz, G.; Rack, A.; Zanette, I.; Müller, B. Comparison of propagation-based phase-contrast tomography approaches for the evaluation of dentin microstructure. Proc. SPIE 2012, 8506, 85060N–85061N.

15. Kühl, S.; Deyhle, H.; Zimmerli, M.; Spagnoli, G.; Beckmann, F.; Müller, B.; Filippi, A. Cracks in dentin and enamel after cryo-preservation. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endodontol. 2011, 113, e5–e10.

16. Swain, M.V.; Xue, J. State of the art of micro-CT applications in dental research. Int. J. Oral Sci. 2009, 1, 177–188.

17. Holme, M.N.; Schulz, G.; Deyhle, H.; Weitkamp, T.; Beckmann, F.; Lobrinus, J.A.; Rikhtegar, F.; Kurtcuoglu, V.; Zanette, I.; Saxer, T.; et al. Complementary X-ray tomography techniques for histology-validated 3D imaging of soft and hard human tissues using plaque-containing blood vessels as examples. Nat. Protoc. 2014, 9, 1401–1415.

18. Beckmann, F.; Herzen, J.; Haibel, A.; Müller, B.; Schreyer, A. High density resolution in synchrotron-radiation-based attenuation-contrast microtomography. Proc. SPIE 2008, 7078, doi:10.1117/12.794617.

19. Dowker, S.E.P.; Elliott, J.C.; Davis, G.R.; Wilson, R.M.; Cloetens, P. Three-dimensional study of human dental fissure enamel by synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Eur. J. Oral Sci. 2006, 114, 353–359.

20. Davis, G.R.; Evershed, A.N.Z.; Mills, D. Quantitative high contrast X-ray microtomography for dental research. J. Dent. 2013, 41, 475–482.

21. Lo, E.C.; Zhi, Q.H.; Itthagarun, A. Comparing two quantitative methods for studying remineralization of artificial caries. J. Dent. Res. 2010, 38, 352–359.

22. Sunnegardh-Grönberg, K.; VanDijken, J.W.V.; Funegard, U. Selection of dental materials and longevity of replaced restorations in Public Dental Health clinics in northern Sweden. J. Dent. 2009, 37, 673–678.

23. Selwitz, R.H.; Ismail, A.I.; Pitts, N.B. Dental caries. Lancet 2007, 369, 51–59.

24. Hannig, M.; Hannig, C. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2010, 5, 565–569.

25. Hannig, M.; Hannig, C. Nanotechnology and its role in caries therapy. Adv. Dent. Res. 2012, 24, 53–57.

26. Firth, A.; Aggeli, A.; Burke, J.L.; Yang, X.; Kirkham, J. Biomimetic self-assembling peptides as injectable scaffolds for hard tissue engineering. Nanomedicine 2006, 1, 189–199.

27. Brunton, P.A.; Davies, R.P.W.; Burke, J.L.; Smith, A.; Aggeli, A.; Brookes, S.J.; Kirkham, J. Treatment of early caries lesions using biomimetic self-assembling peptides—A clinical safety trial. Br. Dent. J. 2013, 215, E6.

28. Kirkham, J.; Firth, A.; Vernals, D.; Boden, N.; Robinson, C.; Shore, R.C.; Brookes, S.J.; Aggeli, A. Self-assembling peptide scaffolds promote enamel remineralization. J. Dent. Res. 2007, 86, 426–430.

29. Ramani, S.; Thevenaz, P.; Unser, M. Regularized interpolation for noisy images. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 2010, 29, 543–558.

30. Stalder, A.; Ilgenstein, B.; Chicerova, N.; Deyhle, H.; Beckmann, F.; Müller, B. Combined use of micro computed tomography and histology to evaluate the regenerative capacity of bone grafting materials. Int. J. Mater. Res. 2014, 105, 679–691.

31. Schulz, G.; Waschkies, C.; Pfeiffer, F.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; David, C.; Muller, B. Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum—Merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology. Sci. Rep. 2012, 2, doi:10.1038/srep00826.

32. Dowker, S.E.P.; Elliott, J.C.; Davis, G.R.; Wassif, H.S. Longitudinal study of the three-dimensional development of subsurface enamel lesions during in vitro demineralisation. Caries Res. 2003, 37, 237–245.

33. Dowker, S.E.P.; Elliott, J.C.; Davis, G.R.; Wilson, R.M.; Cloetens, P. Synchrotron X-Ray microtomographic investigation of mineral concentrations at micrometre scale in sound and carious enamel. Caries Res. 2004, 38, 514–522.

34. Müller, B.; Deyhle, H.; Lang, S.; Schulz, G.; Bormann, T.; Fierz, F.; Hieber, S. Three-dimensional registration of tomography data for quantification in biomaterials science. Int. J. Mater. Res. 2012, 103, 242–249.

35. Jorgensen, S.M.; Eaker, D.R.; Vercnocke, A.J.; Ritman, E.L. Reproducibility of global and local reconstruction of three-dimensional micro-computed tomography of iliac crest biopsies. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 2008, 27, 569–576.

36. Dziadowiec, I.; Beckmann, F.; Schulz, G.; Deyhle, H.; Müller, B. Characterization of a human tooth with carious lesions using conventional and synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography. Proc. SPIE 2014, 9212, 92120W.

37. Robinson, C.; Kirkham, J.; Baverstock, A.C.; Shore, R.C. A flexible and rapid pH cycling procedure for investigations into the remineralisation and demineralisation behaviour of human enamel. Caries Res. 1992, 26, 14–17.

38. Andronache, A.; von Siebenthal, M.; Székely, G.; Cattin, P. Non-rigid registration of multi-modal images using both mutual information and cross-correlation. Med. Image Anal. 2008, 12, 3–15.

39. Fierz, F.C.; Beckmann, F.; Huser, M.; Irsen, S.H.; Leukers, B.; Witte, F.; Degistirici, Ö.; Andronache, A.; Thie, M.; Müller, B. The morphology of anisotropic 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Biomaterials 2008, 29, 3799–3806.

40. Yoo, T.S.; Ackerman, M.J.; Lorensen, W.E.; Schroeder, W.; Chalana, V.; Aylward, S.; Metaxas, D.; Whitaker, R. In Engineering and Algorithm Design for an Image Processing API: A Technical Report on ITK—The Insight Toolkit, Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, January 2002; Westwood, J., Ed.; IOS Press Amsterdam: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2002; pp. 586–592.

Štítky
Stomatológia
Prihlásenie
Zabudnuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa

Zabudnuté heslo

Zadajte e-mailovú adresu, s ktorou ste vytvárali účet. Budú Vám na ňu zasielané informácie k nastaveniu nového hesla.

Prihlásenie

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte sa